Urban Tenure

With the expansion of cities and urban infrastructure comes a growing need to better understand the relationship between people and land in urban and peri-urban areas.

With the expansion of cities and urban infrastructure comes a growing need to better understand the relationship between people and land in urban and peri-urban areas.

Urbanization is a global phenomenon. Countries throughout the world are rapidly urbanizing, particularly in the developing world, and for the first time in human history the majority of people today live in urban areas [1]. By 2050, 66% of the world’s population is projected to live in urban areas. The most urbanized regions include Northern America (82% of the population living in urban areas in 2014), Latin America and the Caribbean (80%) and Europe (73%). In contrast, Africa and Asia remain mostly rural, but are urbanizing faster than the other regions and are projected to become 56 and 64% urban, respectively, by 2050 [2].

The causes of urbanization include natural population growth and rural-urban migration, which can result from under-employment in rural areas, poor agricultural conditions, reclassification of rural to urban land, conflicts in rural areas, and from the prospect of better economic opportunities in urban areas. The consequences of rural-urban migration include the densification of certain parts of the city, often resulting in informal settlements. Urban sprawl and the expansion of the urban footprint may also result—either through formal or informal processes.   

Urban population projections highlight the increasing demand for land, both for housing and food production, as well as for a variety of economic activities related to urban land.  However, since land is a limited resource and increasingly unavailable within cities across the world, intensified pressures on urban land can lead to a shortage of land and skyrocketing land values. To the urban poor, this means that access to land becomes increasingly difficult, be it for housing, food production, or trading. Lack of access to land can result in “informal” or unregulated land management and occupation.

Meanwhile, as competition for land intensifies, nearly 70% of land systems across the globe remain undocumented [3]. Particularly in developing countries, enormous surfaces are covered under social tenures, informal and overlapping rights. Land regularization is not a feasible option to the majority of informal dwellers due to financial, technical and judicial barriers. As a result, rapid urbanization is often associated with a decrease of tenure security, particularly for the urban poor. This can negatively impact millions of people.

In 2015, the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing as a Component of the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living acknowledged the increasing rates of forced evictions with impunity, the expansion of informal settlements (often without basic services like water, sewage, electricity or roads), the development of unaffordable rental properties, and the tenure insecurity of millions of people [4].

With security of tenure, people are more likely to invest in their families, homes, and futures [5]. When households and communities have secure tenure, they are more willing and able to engage in housing and settlement development processes. When land tenure is secure, land can be a cornerstone for economic growth and an incentive for investment, but when land rights are insecure, this can lead to conflicts, instability and the exclusion of vulnerable groups, such as women, Indigenous Peoples and the poor.

 

 

 

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    25 avril 2017
    Maroc

    Date: 25 avril 2017

    Source: Challenge.ma

    La Cour des Comptes a fait état dans son rapport annuel de 2015, rendu public lundi 24 avril 2017, de la non-élaboration d’un code desdomaines de l’État en vue de donner une définition du domaine privé de l’État, déterminer le régime juridique qui lui est applicable et les procédures de sa gestion ainsi que les instruments de sa valorisation et les outils de sa protection.

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    Sénégal

    Date: 12 janvier 2017

    Source: Sud Quotidien

    Par Chérif Faye

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    Date: 05 janvier 2017

    Source: Le Faso.net

    Suite à des constats et plaintes et s’inscrivant dans cette logique populiste en vogue sous la transition, la septième législature a réalisé une prouesse en répondant aux attentes des populations par la mise en place d’une commission d’enquête parlementaire sur le foncier urbain.

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    Date: 11 novembre 2016

    Source: Metropolitiques

    Par Alice Franck

    Le contexte économique et politique instable au Soudan incite les gens à investir massivement dans le foncier urbain. À Khartoum, la ruée vers les terres est le fait de tous, élites comme classes populaires, et surtout les autorités, qui conservent la mainmise sur ces bien précieux. Les titres de propriété sont régulièrement remis en cause, donnant l’impression d’une insécurité foncière croissante.

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    Rights to land and resources are at the center of our most pressing development issues: poverty reduction, food security, conflict, urbanization, gender equality, climate change, and resilience. Secure Land Tenure and Property Rights (LTPR) create incentives for investment, broad-based economic growth, and good stewardship of natural resources. Insecure property rights and weak land governance systems often provoke conflict and instability, which can trap communities, countries, and entire regions in a cycle of poverty.

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    Los días 23, 24 y 25 de agosto del presente año, se llevará a cabo el TERCER CONGRESO IBEROAMERICANO DE SUELO URBANO en la ciudad de Curitiba, Brasil, con el tema “El suelo en la nueva agenda urbana”, organizado de manera conjunta por El Colegio Mexiquense AC, la Universidad Federal do Paraná, la Pontificia Universidad Católica do Paraná y la Universidad Positivo.

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    L’urbanisation et la transformation de l’agriculture, des systèmes alimentaires et des espaces ruraux présentent à la fois des défis et des opportunités pour parvenir à une croissance inclusive, à l’éradication de la pauvreté, à la pérennité économique, environnementale et sociale, ainsi qu’en termes de sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition.

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    Journal Articles & Books
    décembre 2017

    The relationship between sustainable urban development and environmental sustainability is crucial to every strategy of urban transformation, renewal and regeneration. In particular, urban regeneration entails programmes of urban transformation that involve the rehabilitation of existing parts of a city, re-use previously built-up area and abandoned buildings, and redevelop blighted urban spaces to increase urban sustainability.

    Peer-reviewed publication
    juillet 2017

    Urban expansion has become a widespread trend in developing countries. Road networks are an extremely important factor driving the expansion of urban land and require further study. To investigate the relationship between road networks and urban expansion, we selected Beijing, New York, London, and Chicago as study areas. First, we obtained urban land use vector data through image interpretation using a remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) platform and then used overlay analysis to extract information on urban expansion.

    Policy Papers & Briefs
    juillet 2017
    • There is an accute lack of well-located urban housing that is adequate, secure, and affordable. The global affordable housing gap is currently estimated at 330 million urban households and is forecast to grow by more than 30 percent to 440 million households, or 1.6. billion people, by 2025.
    • This paper defines three key challenges to providing adequate, secure and affordable housing in the global south: the growth of informal or substandard settlements, the overemphasis on home ownership, and inappropriate policies or laws that push the poor out of the city.
    Global Urban Lectures: Geoffrey Payne - Improving urban tenure security and property rights cover image
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    juillet 2017

    Geoffrey Payne outlines five fundamental propositions that are key to his understanding of tenure issues and policy options.

    These are:

    1) That access to affordable land with adequate security of tenure and associated rights is a pre-condition for realising the goal of adequate housing and poverty reduction;

    Peer-reviewed publication
    juillet 2017

    Urban green spaces provide important recreational, social and psychological benefits to stressed city residents. This paper aims to understand the importance of parks for visitors. We focus on Delhi, the world’s second most populous city, drawing on 123 interviews with park visitors in four prominent city parks. Almost all respondents expressed the need for more green spaces. Visitors valued parks primarily for environmental and psychological/health benefits.

    Peer-reviewed publication
    juillet 2017

    This study uses a spatially-explicit land-use/land-cover (LULC) modeling approach to model and map the future (2016–2030) LULC of the area surrounding the Laguna de Bay of Philippines under three different scenarios: ‘business-as-usual’, ‘compact development’, and ‘high sprawl’ scenarios. The Laguna de Bay is the largest lake in the Philippines and an important natural resource for the population in/around Metro Manila.