Latin America and the Caribbean

Date of publication
mars 2012
Geographical focus

This report presents the findings of a
first-ever, comprehensive study of how Latin America and the
Caribbean (LAC) region airports have evolved during a
notable period of transition in airport ownership. It is an
unbiased, positive analysis of what happened, rather than a
normative analysis of what should be done to reform and to
attract private sector participation to the airport sector.
It takes the first step to respond to the need for more
conclusive information about the influence of airport
ownership on economic performance. The report centers on the
study of three dimensions of performance: productive
efficiency, institutional setup for the governance of the
sector, and financing. This multifaceted report uses a range
of advanced quantitative and qualitative methods to assess
the relationship between airport ownership and performance
in the LAC region. After a comprehensive overview, chapters
1 and 2 provide the necessary background for the air
transport sector and the evolution of private sector
participation and investment in airport infrastructure. In
chapter 3, questionnaires submitted to airport operators and
regulators led to the creation of the unique data sets,
which were first used to compare performance across 14
partial performance indicators, and next used to develop
aggregate measures of efficiency necessary for the
benchmarking exercise. In chapter 4, a qualitative study of
the relationship between type of regulating agency
(independent or government-led) and transparency,
accountability, and bureaucracy provides insight into how
recent reforms have also affected the quality of regulatory
governance. Chapter 5 provides an in-depth analysis of the
evolution of tariff structures in the region as compared to
a sample of international airports. Several important topics
were not included in this report but should be the focus of
future research. In particular, the evolution of the quality
of services in airports deserves greater attention, as
airports are increasingly becoming business centers and key
gateways for trade competitiveness. The other main topic
that requires detailed practical research is climate change
and its relationship with the airport sector.

Date of publication
décembre 2014
Geographical focus

A focus on development results is at the
heart of the Latin America and Caribbean Region s approach
to delivering programs and policy advice with partners in
middle-income and low income countries alike. Through
knowledge, convening activities, and financial services we
strive to help people across the region create better
opportunities and build a better future for themselves,
their families and their country. Documenting, measuring and
evaluating results of what we do, helps us and our partners
to engage more effectively, learn from our experiences and
apply lessons to the design and implementation of future
interventions. This collection of result stories shows our
continuous efforts to adopt and integrate technical
analysis, timely policy advice, and a variety of financial
instruments into programs that are aligned with client
priorities. Results show the increased demand and the
effectiveness of peer-to-peer learning, have led to a
scaling up our support for South-South exchange activities
and the use our convening power to support successful
partnerships and mobilize additional resources to finance
development work.

Date of publication
janvier 2014
Geographical focus

The Latin America and Caribbean Region
has been at the forefront of global biodiversity
conservation, dedicating 20 percent of its land to protected
areas compared to 13 percent in the rest of the developing
world. This progress has stretched available budgets for
conservation with estimates indicating that a twofold
increase would be necessary to achieve optimal management of
existing protected areas based on 2008 data. Recognizing the
importance of this financing challenge, this document
presents examples of how the region is successfully
exploring news ways and sources of finance for biodiversity
conservation. It is intended as an input to the global
discussions on biodiversity financing drawing from a
selective review of concrete experiences where governments
are tapping nonpublic finance sources in effective
partnerships. The cases reviewed point to common features
contributing to their success: (i) variety in arrangements;
(ii) enabling legal and institutional support; (iii)
capacity based on record of experience; (iv) building social
capital; (v) clarity about conservation objectives; (vi)
strong government leadership in guiding biodiversity
conservation policies and programs.

Date of publication
janvier 2014

Group s gender action plan (GAP) trust
fund has financed a series of programs to promote gender
equality by empowering women to compete in key markets:
land, labor, agriculture, finance and the private sector.
Work and family: Latin American and the Caribbean women in
search of a new balance offer new analysis of how household
decision-making and allocation of resources affects female
labor market outcomes in the region. This project summarizes
over half a decade of gender-related activities, training,
research and results in Latin America and the Caribbean. All
of the GAP-funded cases chosen for this project provide
succinct policy lessons that were: innovative;
results-driven (impact was measured or documented); policy
relevant (clear indications for policy makers);
methodologically strong; have potential for scaling up or
replication. The chapters present policy lessons organized
around four themes of vital importance to women and their
families: (A) access to labor markets; (B) improved
workplace conditions, (C) entrepreneurial and income-earning
opportunities, and (D) increased land titling and
agricultural productivity. And this project includes five
chapters: chapter one is key issues for women s economic
empowerment in Latin; chapter two is boosting women s labor
force participation; chapter three is good gender practices
in the workplace; chapter four is promoting
income-generating opportunities in urban and rural contexts;
chapter five is women s productivity in agriculture.

Date of publication
avril 2014
Geographical focus

Agricultural growth rates in the Latin
America and the Caribbean (LAC) region have been much slower
than the rest of the developing world. In the regions of
East Asia, South Asia and Middle East and North Africa, the
annual growth of agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
in 1980-2004 exceeded 3 percent, while growth in Sub-
Saharan Africa averaged almost 3 percent. This paper
attempts to present an overview of the agricultural sector
in LAC, discuss its distinctive features, and the potential
role of Information and Communication Technology's
(ICTs) in improving agricultural productivity and market
efficiency in this region. The discussion in this paper will
refer to the evidence provided by studies that evaluate the
impact of ICTs interventions. While the emphasis will be put
on the studies that evaluate interventions in the LAC
region, there will also be references to studies in other
developing economies whenever these are pertinent to the LAC
context. The commercialization of agricultural products has
suffered important transformations in recent decades, posing
big challenges for farmers in the LAC region. Finally, the
adoption of agricultural technologies will also be
constrained by insecure land rights. Investing in
technologies with long-run returns will not be attractive if
farmers are uncertain about their property rights in the
future (Jack, 2011). This is certainly an issue in several
countries in LAC, where land conflicts, expropriation and de
facto ownership are common.

Date of publication
janvier 2014
Geographical focus

The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC)
region has a unique mix of qualities and challenges when it
comes to the environment. It is exceptionally endowed with
natural assets, with globally significant biodiversity and
valuable crops, and also harbors the world s greatest carbon
sink in the Amazon. The purpose of the series is to
contribute to the global knowledge exchange on innovation in
environmental and water resources management and the pursuit
of greener and more inclusive growth. The series addresses
issues relevant to the region s environmental sustainability
agenda from water resources management to environmental
health, natural resource management, biodiversity
conservation, environmental policy, pollution management,
environmental institutions and governance, ecosystem
services, environmental financing, irrigation and climate
change and their linkages to development and growth. The
author presents three successful case studies. The first
case study describes how Colombia designed and implemented
an air quality management program based on public awareness,
evidence-based policy design, and political commitment to
reform. The second case study examines how Brazil is
promoting access to environmental justice through the public
prosecutors model. A third case study shows how the modeling
of climate change and monitoring of glacial retreat in the
Andean countries is fostering decision making to address the
increasingly important challenge of climate change adaptation.

Date of publication
janvier 2014
Geographical focus

Argentina has expanded the use of its
portion of the Parana-Paraguay waterways system for the
transportation of soy and other bulk commodities through an
innovative tolling system that self-finances the dredging
and maintenance of the rivers. Brazil, in turn, is pursuing
a 'green trucking' strategy to improve efficiency
of its cargo haulage industry, reduce petroleum usage, and
curb pollution from trucking. For the entire hemisphere, the
expansion of the Panama Canal will bring post-Panama vessels
and introduce greater scale economies in shipping. The
following sections of this paper provide a more detailed
review of the sectoral objectives, challenges, and way
forward in making Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) growth
greener and more inclusive. It looks back over the
achievements of the demand sectors of urban development and
infrastructure services, energy, urban transport, and water
and sanitation, as well as natural resources and rural
development since Rio 1992. It highlights the achievements
in those areas, and the ability of those accomplishments to
establish a robust path for the region to inclusive green growth.

Date of publication
mars 2014
Geographical focus

The present report spotlights the major
challenges and the opportunities that lie ahead in fecal
sludge management and summarizes the findings from four case
studies that describe the current and potential market for
sludge removal, collection, and disposal in peri-urban
areas. These areas, inhabited by a variety of ethnic,
religious, and cultural groups, typically struggle with high
population density, insufficient land use planning, high
citizen insecurity, and low coverage with basic services.
The report demonstrates how technical, financial,
environmental, social, regulatory, political, and
institutional factors interact to create supply and demand
in four markets where coverage with sanitary sewerage
services is below the regional average, namely: Santa Cruz
(Bolivia), Guatemala City (Guatemala), Tegucigalpa
(Honduras), and Managua (Nicaragua).

Date of publication
mars 2012
Geographical focus

An adequate supply of infrastructure
services has long been viewed by both academics and policy
makers as a key ingredient for economic development. Over
the past quarter-century, the retrenchment of Latin
America's public sector from its dominant position in
the provision of infrastructure, and the opening up of these
industries to private participation, have renewed the debate
on the role of infrastructure in the region's
development. The focus of this paper is three-fold. First,
it documents, in a comparative cross-regional perspective,
the trends in Latin America's infrastructure
development, as reflected in the quantity and quality of
infrastructure services and the universality of their
access. Overall, this suggests the emergence of an
infrastructure gap vis-a-vis other industrial and developing
regions. Second, it provides an empirical assessment of the
contribution of infrastructure development to growth across
Latin America. Third, it examines the trends in the
financing of infrastructure investment -- documenting the
changing roles of the public and private sectors -- and
analyzes how they have been shaped by macroeconomic policy constraints.

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