Over fifteen years have elapsed since the transition from the centrally plannedeconomic system started in the early 1990’s. During this time agricultural andrural areas of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone profound structuralchanges with wide variations in the degree of transformation and in the rate ofsuccess in creating a competitive market and private ownership based food andagricultural system. By becoming member of the European Union the "transition"in its traditional interpretation has been concluded in ten of the Central EastEuropean countries.
Salinization of irrigated agricultural land threatens ecological sustainability and livelihoods of people. Salinization is especially severe in the dry lowlands world-wide and in Central Asia where large amounts of salts accumulated in the soil profile, originating from shallow saline groundwater (GW).
Rebutting Theodore W.
Turkey (Türkiye) lies at the nexus of Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. Turkey’s location, mountains, and its encirclement by three seas have resulted in high terrestrial, fresh water, and marine biodiversity. Most of Turkey’s land area is covered by one of three biodiversity hotspots (Caucasus, Irano-Anatolian, and Mediterranean). Of over 9000 known native vascular plant species, one third are endemic.
Land use and crop production in the Khorezm region in western Uzbekistan, exemplarily for the irrigated low-lands of Central Asia, is adversely affected by the excessive, non-sustainable use of irrigation water on one hand, repeated droughts on the other hand, and by soil degradation by secondary salinization.
The conversion of marginal croplands to tree plantations, as an option to address climate change, land degradation, and irrigation water scarcity, as well as to improve the welfare of local population requires prior analysis.
The paper examines agricultural production and productivity growth in two Central Asian countries – Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Both countries are characterized by a significant shift of resources from the traditional Soviet model of collective agriculture to more market-compliant individual and family farming. In both countries, the beginning of the policy-driven switch to family farming around 1997 coincided with the beginning of recovery in agriculture, namely resumption of agricultural growth after a phase of transition decline since 1991.
During the past two decades agrarian (‘land and farm’) reforms have been widespread in the transition economies of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA), following earlier ones in Asia (China and Vietnam). However, independent family farms did not become the predominant sector in most of Eastern Europe. A new dual (or bi-modal) agrarian structure emerged, consisting of large farm enterprises (with much less social functions than they had before), and very small peasant farms or subsidiary plots.
The carbon budget that was derived from forest land use has been extensively explored in most regions/countries of the Northern Hemisphere but is poorly documented in Central Asia. In this study, we proposed a localized bookkeeping model and estimated the sources and sinks of carbon from forest land use and managements between 1961 and 2010 in two arid regions of Central Asia, e.g., Kazakhstan and Xinjiang, China. The results indicate that the forest land use in these two regions acted as a carbon sink, with a total carbon sequestration of 43.27Tg and 20.74Tg respectively.