Finland

ISO3
FIN
Date of publication
Junio 2012
Geographical focus

Finnish economic history during the "long" 20th century, with a special emphasis on policies for equity and growth, is reviewed. IT is argued that Finland developed from a poor, vulnerable and conflict-prone country to a modern economy in part through policies geared at both growth and equity, such as land reform and compulsory schooling. The state participated in economic activity both indirectly and directly in the post-war period, implementing many social policy reforms that facilitated the functioning of the labor market and led to greater equity. Centralized collective bargaining was just one of the many means through which central government intervened in the economy. Both the long-run growth record and the equality of different kinds of economic outcomes are fairly positive. This suggests that facilitating economic growth through such policies that further more equitable outcomes may at least in the case of Finland have met with some success.

Sami Indigenous People Face Unprecedented Land Grab in Finland

On Tue, Apr 5, 2016

Date: April 3rd 2016
Source: TeleSUR 

Finland's new Forestry Act is poised to rob Sami people of decision-making control over their homelands.

Sami Indigenous people in Finland are facing an unprecedented assault on their rights and territory as a new Forestry Act threatens to level swathes of the last boreal forest in Europe, home to the native group and unique biodiversity, Global Research reported Sunday.

Date of publication
Enero 2015
Geographical focus

The National Forest Strategy's vision is that sustainable forest management is a source of growing welfare. With this vision as its starting point, the Government Report on Forest Policy sets the following strategic objectives: 1) Finland is a competitive operating environment for forest-based business; 2) Forest-based business and activities and their structures are renewed and diversified; 3) Forests are in active, economically, ecologically and socially sustainable and diverse use. The National Forest Strategy contains 28 objectives that have been organised into seven groups: 1) Forest sector grows, enterprises and business are renewed and new and growth enterprises are developed; 2) Supply of raw materials allows for increased use of forests and new investments; 3) EU and international forest policy promote sustainable use, acceptability and competitiveness of forests and wood; 4) Know-how on forest-based business and activities is diverse and responds to changing needs; 5) Administration is flexible, effective and customer-oriented; 6) Forestry is active and business-like; 7) Forest biodiversity and ecological and social sustainability are reinforced.

Date of publication
Enero 1970

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Germany, IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development), Finland, GTZ (Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit), UN-Habitat, World Bank and UNDP, and IPC (International NGO/CSO Planning Committee for Food Sovereignty), Food First International Action Network (FIAN), ILC (International Land Coalition), FIG (International Federation of Surveyors) and other development partners are working together with countries to prepare Voluntary Guidelines that will provide practical guidance to states, civil society, the private sector, investors, donors and development specialists on the responsible governance of tenure. By setting out principles and internationally accepted standards for responsible practices and with associated technical guidance, the Voluntary Guidelines will provide a framework and point of reference that stakeholders can use when developing their own policies and actions.

The Asia regional consultation meeting on FAO Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land and other Natural Resources was held in Hanoi in conjunction with the 7th FIG Regional Conference “Spatial Data Serving People: Land Governance and the Environment – Building the Capacity”. The meeting was co-sponsored by UN-Habitat and FIG, with local organizational support provided by the Vietnam Association of Geodesy, Cartography and Remote Sensing. It was attended by 50 people from 15 countries of the region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Maldives, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri

Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam) and some 20 academics, experts and others from outside the region. All brought a rich and extensive range of expertise derived from their experiences in the public sector, private sector, civil society and academia.

Date of publication
Enero 1970

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) and other development partners are working together with countries to prepare Voluntary Guidelines that will provide practical guidance to states, civil society, the private sector, donors and development specialists on the responsible governance of tenure. By setting out principles and internationally accepted standards for responsible practices, the Voluntary Guidelines will provide a framework and point of reference that stakeholders can use when developing their own policies and actions.

Regional consultations on the proposed Voluntary Guidelines are an important part of the process. They bring together regionally representative, multidisciplinary groups to assess regional priorities and issues that should be considered when the Voluntary Guidelines are drafted. The regional consultation for Europe was hosted by the National Agency for Cadastre and Land Registration, Romania, and was opened by Ms Irina Alexe, the Secretary of State, Ministry of Administration and Interior. The consultation was cosponsored by the National Agency for Cadastre and Land Registration, Romania; GTZ (Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit) and BMZ (Ministry for Economic Development), Germany; the World Bank and FAO. It was attended by 91 people from 28 countries and territories of the region who contributed their substantial knowledge and experience of the public sector, private sector, civil society and academia. Regional participants came from Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Date of publication
Enero 1970
Geographical focus

This discussion paper has been prepared by FAO’s Land Tenure and Management Unit to

seek views and comments on voluntary guidelines on responsible governance of tenure of

land and other natural resources. Weak governance of tenure results in the loss of life and

livelihoods; it deters investment and widespread economic growth and discourages the

sustainable use of natural resources. In contrast, responsible governance of tenure ensures

that relevant policies and rules lead to sustainable, beneficial results, and that related

services are delivered efficiently, effectively and equitably. Responsible governance is

not confined to statutory tenure (e.g. private and public ownership and other rights and

responsibilities) but it recognizes as well customary and common property tenures. It is

anticipated that voluntary guidelines will help countries to improve the governance of

tenure. FAO has been working on governance of tenure since 2005 with generous support

from the Government of Finland (see for example FAO Land Tenure Studies 9: “Good

governance in land tenure and administration”1.) The work of FAO and its partners,

including UN-Habitat, the World Bank, IFAD, individual countries, and civil society, has

shown that there is a growing and widespread interest in voluntary guidelines that can be

adopted at the international level and implemented by countries.

Date of publication
Enero 2014
Geographical focus

Factsheet

Date of publication
Diciembre 2014
Geographical focus

By M. Mercedes Stickler, Land Tenure and Evaluation Specialist, USAID.
Last month, I had the opportunity to take part in the inaugural Conference on Land Policy in Africa. This event—organized by the Land Policy Initiative—highlighted the fact that land is one of the most important development issues facing Africa today.
At the conference, I presented three examples of promising approaches from USAID’s work in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Zambia. Each of these examples demonstrates lessons learned and new approaches to land tenure challenges that we have worked with multiple stakeholders to design, pilot, evaluate, and scale up.
1. Land Certification in Ethiopia’s Lowland Pastoral Areas

Land Certification in the Ethiopian Highlands
Since 2005, USAID has supported a series of land certification schemes that have registered and surveyed over 800,000 parcels and issued over 500,000 land use certificates. Under these programs, boundaries were clarified and validated by neighbors and community members prior to certification, which reduces the likelihood of disputes among neighbors over land. The programs also piloted a method of co-registration of spouses to strengthen women’s land rights.
Preliminary evidence from the government’s own attempts to strengthen farmers’ tenure security shows a number of positive impacts: land certification was correlated with 40-45% higher land productivity in the Tigray Region and 30% higher soil and water conservation investments in the Amhara Region. The Government of Ethiopia is now scaling up this model – using new low-cost high resolution imagery –with support from the U.K. Department for International Development, the World Bank, and the Government of Finland, among others. Meanwhile, USAID is implementing an impact evaluation to measure the livelihood and production impacts of USAID-supported land certification programs in the highland regions of Ethiopia.
Following on the initial success of certification programs in the highlands, USAID recently launched a new program to strengthen community-level land rights in the pastoral areas of Ethiopia’s lowlands. This program is piloting models to map, register, and certify customary communal land use rights, as well as strengthen customary land governance arrangements. The results of this pilot will also be rigorously assessed through an independent impact evaluation, and the success of this approach could provide lessons on how to strengthen land tenure security in pastoral areas elsewhere in the region, such as in Kenya, Tanzania, and Sudan.
2. Mobile Technology Pilot to Document Land Rights in Tanzania

Using Mobile Technology to Map Land Rights in Tanzania
In Tanzania, USAID is piloting an innovative approach to documenting land rights information using mobile technology. Land information, such as land claims and boundaries, is documented using low-cost and readily-available devices, such as GPS-enabled smart phones and tablets, coupled with crowd-sourced data collection methods. Under this program, USAID will train local community members to use technology to gather land rights information in rural and underserved settings. The resulting information will be used to quickly build a reliable database of land rights claims, which can then be verified by the government so that formal documentation can be issued in a more transparent, cost-effective, and timely manner, thus increasing land tenure security. USAID has built in an impact evaluation of this approach to help the Government of Tanzania and other stakeholders determine whether this is a viable alternative approach to more traditional and more costly land administration interventions.
3. Land Tenure and Climate-Smart Agriculture in Zambia

Community Land Rights Mapping in Zambia
In Zambia, USAID is strengthening smallholder farmers’ land and resource rights to increase investment in climate-smart agricultural practices, specifically agroforestry. Research shows that farmers who invest in agroforestry see positive benefits, including increased crop productivity and soil fertility, reduced variability in yields, and higher, more reliable farm income. However, agroforestry has not been widely adopted in the region, and while existing research suggests that tenure insecurity may be an important barrier to uptake, there has been insufficient evidence to date on how best to secure property rights to promote agroforestry adoption.
In selected sites in Zambia’s Eastern Province, USAID is piloting a series of interventions that strengthen smallholder rights to land and trees and provide agroforestry extension services to facilitate tree planting adoption and survivorship on smallholder farms. We are conducting a randomized control trial assessment to evaluate the impact of project interventions on the land use and livelihood decisions of smallholder farmers. With the consent of the customary authorities, villages were randomly assigned to receive either the agroforestry intervention, the land tenure intervention, both the agroforestry and land tenure interventions, or no intervention (the control group). A baseline survey has already been administered to 4,000 households in 315 villages, and an endline survey will be conducted in 2019. With this strong impact evaluation design, USAID hopes to quantify the correlation between secure land tenure and higher investments in agroforestry.
Supporting Missions Across 24 Countries
These are just three examples of promising approaches from our work in Africa. Across 24 countries, USAID’s Office of Land Tenure and Resource Management is supporting USAID missions to carry out projects, impact evaluations, and research activities that test and scale models to strengthen land tenure and property rights in support of key development objectives. To learn more, visit the following pages:
Ethiopia LAND Project
Tanzania Mobile Technology Pilot
Climate-Smart Agriculture in Zambia

Date of publication
Diciembre 2003
Geographical focus

This Decree defines the functions and powers of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and specifies the institutions that are included in the administrative framework of the Ministry. The Ministry's duties include: agriculture, horticulture and rural development; forestry; fisheries, game and reindeer husbandry; medical supervision, enforcement and prevention of animal diseases and animal welfare; the practice of veterinary medicine; foodstuffs as regards animal food and medical treatment of animals; veterinary border control; plant health and inputs used in agriculture and horticulture; ownership issues regarding the State denominated forestry land with the exception of protected areas and wilderness areas, and public waters that are within its area of responsibility; surveying and use of geographic information; supply of water and disposal of wastewater, the regulation of water, control of flood damage, draining and irrigation of the land, dam safety and maintenance of the water buildings, the state's obligations as the holder of a permit under the Water Act (264/1961) and other uses and other management of water including associated matters relating to boundary waters; Sustainable and multipurpose use, care and protection of renewable natural resources; the functions of the competent authority for purposes of the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund and other European Funds. Agencies, institutions, corporations and other entities within the sphere of competence of the Ministry include: the Research Centre for Agrifood; the Forest Agency, the Forest Research Game and Fisheries Research Institute, the Food Agency, the Research Institute for Veterinary and Food, the Control Center for Plant Production, the Geodetic Institute, the Land Survey Office, the Agriculture and Forestry Information Centre, the Rural Industries Complaints Board, the Veterinary Medicine Accident Board; the Boreal Plant Breeding Corporation, the Horticultural Development Fund and the Agricultural Intervention Fund. The Decree also provides with respect to certain aspects of the administration of the Ministry.

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