Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 10 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency.
Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), also termed as multi-criteria assessment (MCA), is a powerful policy appraisal tool but as Stirling (2006) has suggested, it can be used both for opening up and closing down policy discourses. Our analysis of MCA in addressing a conflict between state forestry and indigenous Sámi reindeer herding in Upper Lapland, Finland, illustrates MCA's potential in promoting open discussion about policy alternatives and their consequences, and also its limitations in highly controversial policy processes.
Quantifying landscape‐scale methane (CH₄) fluxes from boreal and arctic regions, and determining how they are controlled, is critical for predicting the magnitude of any CH₄ emission feedback to climate change. Furthermore, there remains uncertainty regarding the relative importance of small areas of strong methanogenic activity, vs. larger areas with net CH₄ uptake, in controlling landscape‐level fluxes.
The ongoing forest biodiversity protection programme in Finland (METSO) relies on voluntary participation of family forest owners. Even though the programme has gained wide acceptability among owners, compared to traditional conservation such as land acquisition, more owners need to be engaged. In this study, we examined how the new protection measures have diffused among forest owners. This analysis will help find means to promote the protection among owners who could but have not yet participated. The theoretical background is innovation diffusion.
The Belgian climate policy is formulated at the federal level, requiring cooperation between regional and federal administrations. Around a fifth of the total area of Belgium is covered by forests. Around 80/ of the productive forests are in the Walloon region. Reported values for land use change and forestry categories give a potential of 2,057 kt eq. CO2 per year. Given the existing regional forest inventories (RFI): RFI1 for 1984 and RFI2 for 1999, an estimate has been made to consolidate reported data.
CONTEXT: Landscape transition drives environmental change across the globe. However, landscape and its change are complex with high spatial heterogeneity, which challenges strategic decision-making. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to derive management meaningful units based on landscape status and change analysis and the generalization of landscape spatial heterogeneity. METHODS: Based on contrasting cases from Finland (Vanajavesi) and China (Baota District), this paper analyzed the landscape attributes and change since 2000.
CONTEXT: We studied the influence of human activities and climate change on water quantity and quality. Human activities included methods of agricultural policy, i.e. land use and management practices. OBJECTIVES: Finland started to follow EU’s agricultural policy in 1995. In this study our main objective was to find out whether the original targets of the Finnish Agri-Environmental Programme (FAEP) were achieved. METHODS: We analyzed trends in discharge, water quality and climate parameters in 37 years long time-series in two catchments.
Great share of rented land in total utilised area as well as a significant variability of land rent and market prices of land causes a need of research that would assess which factors influence the land rent as well as the price of land and how significant such factor are in each state. The average land rent is significantly lower in new EU member states than in the EU 15 members. There is a strong dependence of land rent on the intensity of production. Subsidies have moderate to medium influence.
A voluntary conservation approach may reveal environmentally minded landowners who are willing to protect their lands with a compensation that is lower than the market price based compensation. Consequently, voluntary conservation programs may induce lower costs than traditional obligatory programs, such as a land taking. We compared the costs accrued from land purchasing with those from temporal land leasing. The costs included both direct costs, such as fees of land acquisition and compensation payments in land leasing, and transaction costs.