This report summarizes recent experiences with the application of PRA methods in the fields of irrigation and water management in Sri Lanka, Pakistan, India, Kenya, Estonia, and Zimbabwe. Methods of group dynamics, sampling, semi-structured interviewing and dialogue, visualization and diagramming are explained, with examples.
This monograph is composed of three parts that cover the following topics: 1) land registration system, land reforms, land cadastre, land register, privatisation of dwellings and non-residential premises, apartment ownership, apartment association and national register of construction works in Estonia; 2) the objectives and tasks of modern cadastre, registration of real property and frame of cadastre information system (since 2006) in Latvia; 3) the system of real property cadastre, the real property register and analysis of the real property data in Lithuania.
Aim of the paper: in order to create the new most appropriate model of rural development in Lithuania, it is necessary to analyse specific situation, created under the influence of the last century historical events and its long-term consequences. Lithuania, as well as other Baltic states, has created the agrarian sector under the very complicated economical, social, and cultural circumstances. Each Baltic state (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) had some specific features of rural development, which were formed during the last century.
Great share of rented land in total utilised area as well as a significant variability of land rent and market prices of land causes a need of research that would assess which factors influence the land rent as well as the price of land and how significant such factor are in each state. The average land rent is significantly lower in new EU member states than in the EU 15 members. There is a strong dependence of land rent on the intensity of production. Subsidies have moderate to medium influence.
Urban land use has been a major driving force behind land use change in Estonia since regaining independence and land reform process in the 1990s. The study summarizes land use change, land management and planning practices in the urban fringe over a period of 20 years with the aim of introducing a sustainable land use policy in highly fragmented suburban land. The processes and dynamics of land use change are explored using cartographic and landscape metrics analysis.
Fragmentation of forest landscapes and structural degradation of woodlands have a holistic negative effect on biodiversity. Bats are considered as indicators of woodland’s structural quality. However, as bats commute long distances on a nightly basis, their diversity should also be limited by large-scale drivers such as landscape and species availability in the region. Therefore we examined roles of the local species pool, landscape structure and habitat properties on species richness of bats through three spatial scales with emphasis on top–down relationships.
The implementation of land reform has influenced the formation of property structure. The main procedures of land reform activities are stated in Estonian legislation. However, the provisions for determining the area and the boundaries for properties to be formed in the course of land reform are stated in legal acts in an unsystematic way. The aim of this study is to systematize the parcel area and the boundaries determination procedures that are used in the course of land reform for property formation.
The fragmentation of landholdings is considered as disturbing factor for agriculture. The aim of this article is to evaluate the extent of land fragmentation of the large landholdings in Estonia. The Januszewski and Schmook indexes were calculated for that purpose. The detailed survey of three agricultural landholdings was conducted in order to assess the possibilities to reduce the land fragmentation and improve their land use conditions. Results showed that Estonian agricultural producers’ landholdings are considerably fragmented.
The price of agricultural land and arable land is particularly low in Estonia when compared to Western European countries. The demand for agricultural land was low during the first decade after the collapse of the Soviet agriculture system. The situation is changing and the demand for agricultural land is increasing at the present time. Yet, simultaneously, the formation of arable land prices is not studied much. There are several factors affecting land prices and spatial characteristics are among them.