Estonia

ISO3
EST
Date of publication
Agosto 2012
Geographical focus

Countries in transition from centrally
planned to market economies face several challenges when
planning investments. These include a lack of information
about beneficiary groups, particularly those in rural areas;
and the collapse of institutions maintained by the state
prior to transition. During preparation of the Estonia
Agriculture Project, the government sought World Bank
technical assistance to undertake a social assessment (SA)
to fill information gaps and initiate a process of building
new local level institutions. The SA was divided into three
phases, with the overall objective of building institutional
capacity at both the local and the national level. Phase I
has been completed. It has enabled the government to assess
farmers' commitment to rehabilitation of field drainage
systems, and their willingness to form farmer-managed Land
and Water Associations and to share costs and assume
responsibilities for operation and maintenance. Since
regaining independence in 1991, Estonia has stabilized its
macroeconomic situation and moved rapidly towards a market
economy. Living standards, which declined dramatically in
1992 and 1993, have begun to rise in urban areas where
enterprises have been privatized and industrial production
has begun to revive. However, similar results have not
materialized in rural areas. Estonia has the potential to be
competitive in agriculture if certain constraints are
overcome. The Agriculture Project, as the first
Bank-supported operation, is expected to address some of
these, principally the rehabilitation of field drainage systems.

Date of publication
Enero 1970

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) and other development partners are working together with countries to prepare Voluntary Guidelines that will provide practical guidance to states, civil society, the private sector, donors and development specialists on the responsible governance of tenure. By setting out principles and internationally accepted standards for responsible practices, the Voluntary Guidelines will provide a framework and point of reference that stakeholders can use when developing their own policies and actions.

Regional consultations on the proposed Voluntary Guidelines are an important part of the process. They bring together regionally representative, multidisciplinary groups to assess regional priorities and issues that should be considered when the Voluntary Guidelines are drafted. The regional consultation for Europe was hosted by the National Agency for Cadastre and Land Registration, Romania, and was opened by Ms Irina Alexe, the Secretary of State, Ministry of Administration and Interior. The consultation was cosponsored by the National Agency for Cadastre and Land Registration, Romania; GTZ (Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit) and BMZ (Ministry for Economic Development), Germany; the World Bank and FAO. It was attended by 91 people from 28 countries and territories of the region who contributed their substantial knowledge and experience of the public sector, private sector, civil society and academia. Regional participants came from Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Date of publication
Enero 2011
Geographical focus

The article summarizes the land relations in the Baltic countries: the features of the land policy, lands' relationships and land use planning in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia in the XVII-XIX centuries.

Date of publication
Enero 2014
Geographical focus

The protection of agricultural land is an important issue because the area of food production per capita will be decreasing by several estimations in the next decades. The planning measures to ensure the preservation of valuable arable land are among the objectives of county plans in Estonia. However, there is no clear methodology for determination of valuable agricultural land as of now. The aim of the study was to develop methodology in order to determine valuable agricultural lands in the frame of preparation of countywide spatial plans in Estonia. The paper presents a description of that methodology and the possibilities to implement it in the course of preparation of county plans. The idea of the methodology is to calculate the complex value index for plots of agricultural land. The complex value index characterises the plots of agricultural land from the agriculture production perspective, and the fiscal value of land is not considered thereof. The soil fertility, spatial properties, and other features of plots have been considered for calculation of the complex value index for Jogeva County in Estonia. All tasks were made in an ArcGIS environment and different digital maps were used as data sources. The calculated indexes made the plots comparable from the agriculture production perspective and conditions for simulation of the different situations of valuable land areas were created. The simulation of different situations of valuable arable land indicated that the proposed methodology gave planners flexible tools for determination of valuable agricultural land.

Geographical focus

Estonia is an independent and sovereign democratic republic wherein supreme political authority is vested in the people. The independence and sovereignty of Estonia are timeless and inalienable (Article 1). The land, territorial waters and airspace of Estonia constitute an inseparable and indivisible whole (Article 2). The natural wealth and resources of Estonia are national riches which must be used economically (Article 5). It consists of 168 Articles divided into 15 Chapters: General Principles (I);Fundamental Rights, Freedoms and Duties (II); The People (III); The Riigikogu (Legislative Authority) (IV); The President (V); The Government of the Republic (VI); Legislation (VII); Finance and the National Budget (VIII); Foreign Relations and International Treaties (IX); National Defence (X); The National Audit Office (XI); The Chancellor of Justice (XII); The Courts (XIII); Local Self-Government (XIV); and Amendments of the Constitution (XV). Everyone is entitled to protection of his or her health. Every citizen of Estonia is entitled to government assistance in the case of old age, incapacity for work, loss of provider, or need. The categories and extent of the assistance, and the conditions and procedure for its allocation are provided by law. Unless otherwise provided by law, citizens of foreign states and stateless persons in Estonia enjoy this right equally with citizens of Estonia. The national government facilitates voluntary provision of welfare services and provision of welfare services by local authorities. Families with a large number of children as well as people with disabilities enjoy special care of the national government and of local authorities (Article 28). The Government of the Republic in the case of a natural disaster or a catastrophe, or to prevent the spread of an infectious disease, declares a state of emergency in the entire national territory or a part thereof (Article 87).

Date of publication
Enero 1979

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) - currently ratified by 187 countries - is the only human rights treaty that deals specifically with rural women (Art. 14). Adopted in 1979 by the United Nations Generally Assembly, entered into force in 1981. The Convention defines discrimination against women as follows:

For the purposes of the present Convention, the term "discrimination against women" shall mean any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field (Art. 1).

The Convention covers civil and political rights, as well as economic, social and cultural rights. Notably, it contains obligations on State Parties also in respect of discrimination by private parties, or in private contexts. Furthermore, CEDAW considers both de jure (in law) and de facto (in practice) discrimination. States that ratified - or otherwise acceded to - the Convention are legally bound to put its provisions in practice, even if they made reservations, which shouldn't be in any way "incompatible with the object and purpose" of the Convention (Art. 28).

Because it sets an international standard of women's human rights in areas such as education, employment, health care, marriage and family relations, politics, finance, and law, CEDAW provides a platform for lobbying governments to promote gender equality and hold them accountable at international level. CEDAW has been an important advocacy tool of the women's movement over the last 30 years.

States Parties of the Convention should submit periodic reports to the CEDAW Committee on the legislative, judicial, administrative or other measures which they have adopted to give effect to the provisions of the Convention (Art. 18). Civil society can present "shadow reports".  

Art. 14, 15 and 16 of CEDAW specifically deal with rural women, ownership of land, inheritance rights and right to access property. You can read the Convention on the OHCHR website, where you can also find information on past and current Sessions of the CEDAW Committe, including official States' Reports and civil society "shadow reports", the Committee's Concluding Observations, and General Recommendations.

Finally, you can find information for NGO participation.

Geographical focus

This Act regulates relations between the state, local governments and other persons in the preparation of plans related to land use. A plan prepared in the process of planning is a document which consists of a text and maps. The types of plan are as follows: (a) national spatial plan, which is prepared with the aim of defining the prospective development of the territory of the state and the settlement systems located therein in a generalised and strategic manner; (b) county plan, which is prepared with the aim of defining the prospective development of the territory of a county in a generalised manner and determining the conditions for the development of settlement systems and the location of the principal infrastructure facilities; (c) comprehensive plan, which is prepared with the aim of determining the general directions in and conditions for the development of the territory of a rural municipality or city, and of setting out the bases for the preparation of detailed plans for areas and in the cases where detailed planning is mandatory and for the establishment of land use provisions and building provisions for areas where detailed planning is not mandatory; and (d) detailed plan, which is prepared with the aim of establishing land use provisions and building provisions for cities and towns and for other areas and in other cases where detailed planning is mandatory.

Geographical focus

This Act regulates relations between the state, local governments and other persons in the preparation of plans related to land use. A plan prepared in the process of planning is a document which consists of a text and maps. The types of plan are as follows: (a) national spatial plan, which is prepared with the aim of defining the prospective development of the territory of the state and the settlement systems located therein in a generalised and strategic manner; (b) county plan, which is prepared with the aim of defining the prospective development of the territory of a county in a generalised manner and determining the conditions for the development of settlement systems and the location of the principal infrastructure facilities; (c) comprehensive plan, which is prepared with the aim of determining the general directions in and conditions for the development of the territory of a rural municipality or city, and of setting out the bases for the preparation of detailed plans for areas and in the cases where detailed planning is mandatory and for the establishment of land use provisions and building provisions for areas where detailed planning is not mandatory; and (d) detailed plan, which is prepared with the aim of establishing land use provisions and building provisions for cities and towns and for other areas and in other cases where detailed planning is mandatory.

Geographical focus

This Act provides for the bases and procedure for expropriation of immovables. This Act applies to all cases of expropriation of immovables unless otherwise provided by law. Expropriation is not precluded by provisions of law which prohibit or restrict the transfer or division of immovables or by the rights of third persons entered in the land register. An immovable may be expropriated in the

Geographical focus

This Act provides the restrictions on the acquisition of immovables arising from public interest. For the purposes of this Act, public interest is, in particular, development of the management for specific purposes of immovables used as profit yielding land which contain usable agricultural area or parcels of forest land. A natural person who is neither an Estonian citizen nor the citizen of any

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