Burundi

ISO3
BDI
Date of publication
Septiembre 2012

 The Central African region includes Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome & Principe. The region is characterized by its high diversity, as it reflects all types of ecosystems of the continent. The region is most known as hosting one of the world’s richest forest biodiversity as well as valuable natural resources such as mineral resources and oil. The population of Central African region was estimated at some 121 000 000 inhabitants in 2007. However this population is unevenly distributed. While certain countries as Burundi are experiencing high population density (300 inhabitants/ Km2) others have less than 5 inhabitants/ Km2. In all countries of the region, rapid urbanisation is a heavy change trend. The region has a specific political and institutional context, due to a complex colonial history. France, Great Britain, Germany, Belgium, Portugal and Spain are among the European colonial powers who dominated the region.

State sovereignty over land is common in quite all Central African countries, and is usually associated with non recognition of customary based land rights held by local communities. Other top land issues in the region include: lack of clear land policy, inadequate land laws and legal pluralism; gender issues with special attention to access of women and indigenous people; weak capacity in land policy development and implementation; excessive centralization of land administration systems and poor land governance. All these issues converged in fueling some of the major crisis and conflicts in the continent. Key land policy challenges in the region relates to: good governance of land resources, including participation of non state actors in land policy processes; sustainable management of natural resources, forests in particular; economic growth and poverty alleviation; peace and security.

Current land policies and laws in the region are deeply influenced by the colonial legacy. Customary based land rights are denied by these laws while state sovereignty over land is strongly proclaimed. The region showed very little experience in land policy formulation and in participatory approaches. Most land related reforms undertaken are done through sectoral and ad hoc interventions. Through Ministries in charge of lands and domain, the state plays a prominent role in land policy implementation. In certain instances, semi-public agencies are established to assume specific responsibilities such as financing social housing programmes. However non state and even informal actors are tolerated as they appear to be useful in filling the void left by the state in certain areas. Urban Development Master Plans and Land Occupation Plans are tools most commonly developed and used in urban and pre-urban areas. However, rural areas lack specific land tools, which resulted in poor effectiveness of land policy and laws in the rural areas and to increasing conflicts related to land in the region.

Currently, there is no significant experience of land policy development process in Central Africa. Apart from efforts to simplify procedures for issuing land titles, key land policy changes in the region are observed mainly in specific sectors such as forests and mining. 

In order to make progress in land policy development and implementation in Central Africa, it is crucial to promote participatory monitoring and evaluation of land policy processes, in order to learn from past successes and failure and improve future land policy processes. In this respect, building appropriate human, institutional and financial capacity is a pre-requisite.

Date of publication
Mayo 2012
Geographical focus

The study on the sources of rural growth
in Burundi results from a meticulous work carried out by
eminent experts of the World Bank in response to a request
of the Government of Burundi. It describes the global
environment, which explains poverty aggravation and builds
proposals to overcome most binding constraints to growth in
Burundi. This study is an important contribution in the
fight against poverty, as it identifies ways to resume
growth in the rural world, which accounts for 90 percent of
employment, represents more than 50 percent of gross
domestic product (GDP), and over 80 percent of export
earnings. Increasing rural income will have large multiplier
effects on the national economy. This will enable breaking
the vicious circle of poverty and starting a virtuous circle
of economic growth and poverty reduction. The study
underlines that reforming export-crop sub-sectors such as
coffee, tea, and horticulture will help increase
participation in higher value specialty markets. Entering
these market segments will increase export revenues and
producers' incomes.

Date of publication
Septiembre 2013
Geographical focus

The financial sector, dominated by the
banks, is vulnerable to external shocks. The country is
exposed to terms of trade shocks mainly from coffee and oil
prices, which could impact banks through real sector
effects. The banking system is also vulnerable to a decline
in external assistance which funds nearly half of the
government on which a large share of the economy depends.
Burundi has not been directly affected by the international
crisis, but second round effects are likely to impact growth
and foreign aid prospects The Bank of the Republic of
Burundi (BRB) is making major efforts to improve the
regulation and supervision of the financial institutions
under its responsibility, but it continues to face
significant obstacles The microfinance sector is facing
major challenges, and its supervision reflects the
constraints affecting the BRB. All the on-site inspections
organized by the BRB revealed serious problems and
violations of prudential rules, in particular in the areas
of accounting, governance, or the absence of reliable
internal controls. In order to put the industry on a sound
footing, it is essential to: (i) update the regulatory
framework to facilitate the growth of a sound industry and
introduce a specific chart of accounts; (ii) develop
supervision that is capable of preserving the health of the
sector, and of deposits in particular; and (iii) promote the
professionalization of the industry itself, with improved
human capacities, appropriate management tools, modern
methodologies, and good governance.

Date of publication
Marzo 2012
Geographical focus

This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM)
is the first for Burundi since the 1980s. It has been
developed in collaboration with the government of Burundi.
The CEM has been prepared in cooperation with the African
development bank and the U.K. department for international
development. Burundi is one of the poorest countries in the
world, and has suffered from many years of civil conflict
and its consequences. In the last years, peace has been
established and a promising recovery of the economy has
started. Economic growth rates, however, are not in line
with what has been projected in the latest poverty reduction
strategy paper (September 2006). Real Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) growth had been projected to average almost 7 percent
between 2006 and 2009 in that strategy paper, but actual
growth will average just above 4 percent for the same
period. The report reviews the economic developments in the
past and tries to identify the most binding constraints to
growth. The CEM then sets out a strategy to address these
constraints to promote increased and participatory growth,
reduce poverty, and improve the livelihood of the
population. The report draws on a number of background
studies conducted on various subjects relevant to the
country's economic development and on existing reports
and studies from the government of Burundi, the World Bank,
other donors, and academics. The CEM provides a synthesis of
various recommendations and attempts to prioritize and
sequence key actions.

Date of publication
Marzo 2013
Geographical focus

A reform in Burundi's coffee sector
is currently under way. Even though the reform was launched
by the government of Burundi in 1992, it was only in 2008
that implementation fully started. The purpose of the reform
is to restructure the coffee sector, focusing on the
following processes: privatization of the industrial units
(especially washing and hulling units), liberalization of
government control among the production and export agencies,
and reform of the state coffee institutions. To improve the
reform process, a Rapid Strategic Environmental Assessment
(R-SEA) was recommended. The goal of this RSEA is to analyze
the environmental and socioeconomic aspects along the entire
coffee value chain to provide strategic direction for the
sustainability of coffee production, processing, and
commercialization. This report is divided into six sections:
(i) introduction; (ii) a description of Burundi's
coffee sector; (iii) a brief explanation of the reform in
the coffee sector; (iv) a description of the environ
environmental and socioeconomic issues and gaps in the
coffee sector, as well as recommendations for addressing
them; (v) an action plan outlining priority activities to be
developed in the short and medium term, and (vi) conclusions.

Date of publication
Diciembre 2014
Geographical focus

This economy profile for Doing Business
2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Burundi.
To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides
data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for
each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a
series of annual reports measuring the regulations that
enhance business activity and those that constrain it.
Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business; for
2015 Burundi ranks 152. A high ease of doing business
ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive
to the starting and operation of a local firm. Doing
Business presents quantitative indicators on business
regulations and the protection of property rights that can
be compared across 189 economies from Afghanistan to
Zimbabwe and over time. Doing Business measures regulations
affecting 11 areas of the life of a business known as
indicators. Ten of these areas are included in this
year's ranking on the ease of doing business: starting
a business, dealing with construction permits, getting
electricity, registering property, getting credit,
protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across
borders, enforcing contracts, and resolving insolvency.
Doing Business also measures labor market regulation, which
is not included in this year's ranking. The data in
this report are current as of June 1, 2014 (except for the
paying taxes indicators, which cover the period from January
to December 2013).

Date of publication
Julio 2014
Geographical focus

With limited land, capital, and a fast
growing population, Burundi's main asset is its
youthful population. Its main challenge is also to create
good quality jobs for its youth. With low levels of
educational attainment and poor health status, the quality
of this young population is poor. After more than 13 years
of conflict ending in 2000, and a period of modest recovery,
Burundi has the opportunity to stimulate growth. Burundi is
making strides in creating one of the fundamentals of job
creation - investment climate. Investing in the skills of
the population is critical for the success of growth
strategy and for creating productive employment
opportunities for Burundi's youth. The Government of
Burundi is introducing a major reform in the education
sector which is going to significantly impact skills in
Burundi. This analytical report will contribute to defining
a skills development strategy for Burundi to complement the
growth strategy. It looks at the potential impact of the
basic education reform on the quantity and education
attainment of the working age population. Further it looks
at the skills demands that are likely to emerge if Burundi
upgrades along the value chain in selected sectors to ensure
strong alignment of occupation competencies in growth
sectors. The report is structured as follows: section one
gives introduction. Section two gives impacts of the new
basic education reform, and its pace of implementation, for
the education levels of potential new workers, and of the
population, over the next 10-15 years. Section three
presents the potential upgrading strategies for moving up
the value chain in the selected sectors. Section four
presents current framework for strategic direction,
demand-led approach, and coordination of the technical
vocational education and training (TVET) system.

Date of publication
Enero 2015
Geographical focus

Despite the remarkable progress achieved
since the end of the conflict, Burundi still faces
significant development challenges. Since 2005, the
Government of Burundi has embarked on a potentially
transformative process of decentralization, with the aim of
strengthening social cohesion, improving local governance,
and promoting access to basic infrastructure and service
delivery. The weakness of the communal tax system, coupled
with low mobilization of local revenue and nonexistent
(current) or negligible (capital) transfers from the
national budget threaten the financial viability of
communes, which struggle to support even basic operating
costs. Addressing a specific government request, the present
study aims to provide concrete policy recommendations to
help the Government of Burundi improve the financial and
institutional sustainability of the decentralization reform
process, while enabling communes to address popular demands
and deliver better services. The report will also look at
the implications of these macro-level challenges at the
sectoral level, through a case study of the recent
experiences of decentralized land administration services,
whose responsibilities were recently transferred to
communes. The report is based on results from interviews,
fieldwork research, and qualitative focus group discussion,
combined with existing administrative data and secondary
sources on decentralization in Burundi. The present study is
organized into four thematic chapters. Chapter one provides
a snapshot of Burundiapos;s political and macroeconomic
context, and reviews the evolution of the decentralization
process to better understand how institutional, political,
and bureaucratic dynamics have shaped the historical
trajectory of decentralization and generated the outcomes
observed today. Chapter two provides a systematic
investigation of the status of fiscal decentralization in
Burundi, and identifies key policy issues to be considered
to ensure the medium-term sustainability of the reform
process while at the same time addressing the short-term
financial needs of communes. Chapter three provides an
in-depth diagnostic of a key service delivery responsibility
recently devolved to communes - the provision of land
registration services and discusses the challenges and
opportunities related to ongoing efforts to scale up access
to these land services across 116 rural communes and
Bujumbura. Chapter four shifts the focus to the nature of
state citizen relations in an effort to better understand
how citizen engagement in the decision-making process may be
improved and local authorities held accountable for the
provision of basic services.

Date of publication
Abril 2015
Geographical focus

This study is highly selective
and organized into four thematic chapters.
Specifically, chapter 1 provides a snapshot of
Burundi’s political and macroeconomic context,
and reviews the evolution of the decentralization
process to better understand how institutional,
political, and bureaucratic dynamics have shaped
the historical trajectory of decentralization
and generated the outcomes observed today.
Chapter 2 provides a systematic investigation of the status of fiscal decentralization in Burundi,
and identifies key policy issues to be considered
to ensure the medium-term sustainability of
the reform process while at the same time
addressing the short-term financial needs of
communes. Chapter 3 provides an in-depth
diagnostic of a key service delivery responsibility
recently devolved to communes—the provision
of land registration services—and discusses the
challenges and opportunities related to ongoing
efforts to scale up access to these land services
across 116 rural communes and Bujumbura.
Chapter 4 shifts the focus to the nature of statecitizen
relations in an effort to better understand
how citizen engagement in the decision-making
process may be improved and local authorities
held accountable for the provision of basic
services.

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