Sudáfrica

South Africa: Farm co-ownership pilot project launched in KZN

On Mon, Aug 22, 2016

By: Bongani Mthethwa
Date: August 21st 2016
Source: Sowetan Live

One of the first pilot projects that will see workers and farm owners become co-owners of a farming enterprise as part of government’s 50/50 land policy was officially launched in KwaZulu-Natal on Saturday.

The pilot project‚ which was unveiled at the Westcliffe Farm near Greytown outside Pietermaritzburg‚ was to have been officially launched by President Jacob Zuma.

Date of publication
Diciembre 2010

Southern Africa is one of the most well endowed regions in the continent in terms of mineral and natural resources. However, the region is facing serious environmental challenges such as land degradation, deforestation and water stress in specific areas.

The population of Southern Africa is estimated at 185 million people (Democratic Republic of Congo not included). The population is growing rapidly, mainly in urban areas. The rapid urbanization rate is challenged by the need to develop relevant socio-economic infrastructure. In the absence of effective response from the state and local government, informal settlements are mushrooming in urban and peri-urban areas across the region. 

The colonial legacy continues to exert a profound influence on land issues in Southern Africa. The entire region was affected by the consequences of colonial land policies such as legal dualism. In addition, former settler colonies in the region suffered massive land dispossession. Accompanying the history of land dispossession was the imposition of hierarchal, inequitable and racially discriminatory land tenure systems. Therefore, key land policy challenges in the region include re-establishing national sovereignty over the land and redressing unequal and race based land distribution. The protection of the commons against land-grabbing and privatization are also major land policy challenges in most countries in the region. 

Southern Africa is known as the epicentre of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa and the world. In most countries in the region, the HIV/AIDS prevalence ranges from 12% (Tanzania) to more than 33% (Swaziland). The pandemic has clear impacts on land use, food and tenure security. In affected households, financial resources are diverted from agricultural production to pay for health care and funerals, leading, in some cases to the abandonment of farmlands.

Since the 1990s, the end of apartheid in South Africa, the demise of the socialist system in other countries in the region and the advent of more market-friendly economic policies have driven an intensive process of land policy reform across the region. National land policies are in place in some countries while others have just developed them. The land policy development process is far from being uniform: some countries are considered as models in terms of participatory processes while others followed top-down approaches. 

Generally in the region, land is vested in the state. Consequently, the state possesses extensive powers over the land held and used by people under customary law. However, the ongoing land policy development trends give greater recognition to customary tenure systems, even if the development of effective land management systems which protect the rights of local people remains a major challenge.

However good land policies may be, they will be rendered useless if the implementation systems and institutions are not functioning. The implementation process falls under the domain of land administration, a domain where the capacity of countries in the region is very low. The situation is also highly contrasted within the same country as well as within the region. For example, Mozambique is widely regarded as an example of best practice for the implementation process of the 1997 land law, but there are strong concerns about the weakening of local land rights as a result of the awarding of land concessions in certain areas. The fallout from the manner in which Zimbabwe’s fast track land reform programme was carried out since 2000 continues to reverberate through whole the region. 

Independent of the individual countries initiatives the Southern African Development Community (SADC), as a regional organization, has established a Land Reform Support Facility. This facility aims to provide support to member states in the formulation and implementation of land policies and programmes in line with their national development priorities. The facility has conducted an assessment of land issues in member states and developed a five-year phased programme that started in 2007 and covers the following four major areas: policy formulation and implementation; capacity building; information and communication; and research.

South Africa: Land rights act is entirely invalid, Constitutional Court judges declare

On Mon, Aug 1, 2016

Source: BDLive
Author: Franny Rabkin

ALL land restitution claims made after December 1998 have been put on hold by the Constitutional Court, after the court found that Parliament did not properly consult the public before deciding to reopen the window for claims.

The Restitution of Land Rights Amendment Act — which reopened the window for claims — was rushed through Parliament in 2014 ahead of national and provincial elections.

Date of publication
Agosto 2013
Geographical focus

The book provides an evaluation of, and
policy advice on key environmental, social, and economic
issues concerning the development of nature tourism. Using
KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa as a case study, it highlights
both the benefits, and trade-offs I promoting, an managing
sustainable nature-tourism development, and it assesses how
policy can enhance nature tourism's contribution to
economic growth, poverty reduction, and conservation. The
book's contributors explore three key issues. First,
they consider the importance of moving beyond development of
a wildlife industry, to the creation of a true nature
tourism economy, that supports biodiversity conservation.
Second, they explore the role of the private sector in
contributing to equitable development, and job creation,
while generating conservation finance. Third, they consider
alternative pricing, and other market mechanisms that can
help make nature tourism more viable, and growth-oriented.
Ultimately, the authors argue, economic development, equity,
and conservation objectives can be balanced.

Date of publication
Abril 2014
Geographical focus

Most existing estimates of the
macroeconomic costs of AIDS, as measured by the reduction in
the growth rate of gross domestic product, are modest. For
Africa-the continent where the epidemic has hit the
hardest-they range between 0.3 and 1.5 percent annually. The
reason is that these estimates are based on an underlying
assumption that the main effect of increased mortality is to
relieve pressure on existing land and physical capital so
that output per head is little affected. The authors argue
that this emphasis is misplaced and that, with a more
plausible view of how the economy functions over the long
run, the economic costs of AIDS are almost certain to be
much higher. Not only does AIDS destroy existing human
capital, but by killing mostly young adults, it also weakens
the mechanism through which knowledge and abilities are
transmitted from one generation to the next. The children of
AIDS victims will be left without one or both parents to
love, raise, and educate them. The model yields the
following results. In the absence of AIDS, the
counterfactual benchmark, there is modest growth, with
universal and complete education attained within three
generations. But if nothing is done to combat the epidemic,
a complete economic collapse will occur within three
generations. With optimal spending on combating the disease,
and if there is pooling, growth is maintained, albeit at a
somewhat slower rate than in the benchmark case in the
absence of AIDS. If pooling breaks down and is replaced by
nuclear families, growth will be slower still. Indeed, if
school attendance subsidies are not possible, growth will be
distinctly sluggish. In all three cases, the additional
fiscal burden of intervention will be large, which
reinforces the gravity of the findings.

Date of publication
Junio 2012
Geographical focus

The pressure on an already stressed
water situation in South Africa is predicted to increase
significantly under climate change, plans for large
industrial expansion, observed rapid urbanization, and
government programs to provide access to water to millions
of previously excluded people. The present study employed a
general equilibrium approach to examine the economy-wide
impacts of selected macro and water related policy reforms
on water use and allocation, rural livelihoods, and the
economy at large. The analyses reveal that implicit
crop-level water quotas reduce the amount of irrigated land
allocated to higher-value horticultural crops and create
higher shadow rents for production of lower-value,
water-intensive field crops, such as sugarcane and fodder.
Accordingly, liberalizing local water allocation in
irrigation agriculture is found to work in favor of
higher-value crops, and expand agricultural production and
exports and farm employment. Allowing for water trade
between irrigation and non-agricultural uses fueled by
higher competition for water from industrial expansion and
urbanization leads to greater water shadow prices for
irrigation water with reduced income and employment benefits
to rural households and higher gains for non-agricultural
households. The analyses show difficult tradeoffs between
general economic gains and higher water prices, making
irrigation subsidies difficult to justify.

Date of publication
Junio 2012
Geographical focus

This book seeks to contribute to the
sharing of knowledge between Brazil, India, and South
Africa, three of the largest emerging economies today. By
assessing and comparing the investment climate in each, the
authors seek to profile concrete steps that countries can
take to improve the business environment. The authors focus
particularly on identifying the commonalities and
differences both within and among the three countries and
attempt to highlight examples where policy makers will be
able to drawn on the lessons from their own reform
experiences and those of their counterparts in other core
emerging markets. The book is organized as follows: (1)
Provides a brief overview of the investment climate in each
of the three countries, highlighting the key constraints
identified by the national business communities, and
explains the underlying concepts of the investment climate
assessments and doing business indicators. (2) Examines the
macroeconomic performance of Brazil, India, and South Africa
and shows how the three countries perform with regard to
taxation and foreign trade and exchange. (3) Reviews key
microeconomic regulations, such as rules regarding the entry
and exit of firms and labor regulations, and assesses the
enforcement of contracts and regulations. (4) Studies the
set of services, factors, and conditions that firms require
when establishing operations and engaging in production and
exchange, including access to finance, physical
infrastructure, cost and availability of labor, and
security. (5) Offers guidance on how to manage investment
climate reforms by showcasing best-practice examples from
recent reforms in Brazil, India, and South Africa.

Date of publication
Mayo 2012

This book, Financing cities, emphasized
case studies on different topics to look at the interactions
of a range of variables and factors and to see how they fit
together. Rather than require each case to follow the same
format, the authors have structured their papers around the
issues that matter most from their perspective in addressing
the topic in hand. The first part of this book presents case
studies describing the framework established at the national
level to promote urban infrastructure finance while ensuring
fiscal discipline and reviewing recent experience as well as
future challenges. The subjects covered include the impact
of political and fiscal decentralization, limitations on
borrowing, managing moral hazard, the role of the financial
sector, the achieving of the right balance between stringent
controls and encouragement of local governments taking
responsibility for fiscal discipline coupled with market
discipline. The cases featured include three of the
world's largest decentralized nations; together the
five countries featured in the conference account for nearly
a third of the world's urban population. Part I
includes case studies for each of the five countries
featured in the conference: Brazil (Chapter 1), China
(Chapter 2), India (Chapter 3), Poland (Chapter 4) and South
Africa (Chapter 5). Part II then shifts from the frameworks
for fiscal discipline to urban infrastructure investments
and the strategies used to mobilize investment funding.
Chapters 6 and 7 examine the financing strategies for urban
infrastructure in Shanghai and Brazil respectively. The next
two chapters focus on specialized intermediaries offering
urban infrastructure finance in cities. One is a fully
private venture in South Africa (Chapter 9) while the other,
in Tamil Nadu, India (Chapter 8), is a spin-off of a
government fund with minority private ownership. The final
two chapters examine experiences with two other mechanisms
for mobilizing funding for infrastructure investments from
the private sector, land leasing and sales (Chapter 10) and
private participation in infrastructure operations (Chapter 11).

Date of publication
Diciembre 2012
Geographical focus

Informal settlements are a permanent
feature of South Africa's cities. Estimates from the
General Household Survey by Statistics South Africa show
that more than 26 percent of all households in the
country's six metropolitan areas live in informal
dwellings. The government's policy efforts have focused
on provision of subsidized housing, first introduced as part
of the Reconstruction and Development Program. Through the
lens of new urbanism and coordination in planning this paper
explores the possible impact of the program using data from
the General Household Survey. The analysis of the
program's beneficiaries relative to non-beneficiaries
does not show that public housing provision has multiplier
effects in terms of complementary private investments in
housing maintenance or in upgrading. This is likely because
Reconstruction and Development Program housing is often far
from employment centers, with the houses built in the
"old" apartheid locations that are disconnected
from employment centers. In addition, households do not
receive title deeds and are not allowed to rent out these
dwelling. On the demand side, the authors carried out a
small sample survey in Cape Town and find that, on a per
hectare basis, shack dwellers are paying around the same for
access to land as can be found in the up-scale market for
undeveloped land. However, land zoning regulations and
subdivision laws do not allow supply of small plots that are
compatible with the affordability of poor households.

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