Iraq

Date of publication
Agosto 2014
Geographical focus

This report for Iraq - country water
resources assistance strategy (CWRAS) addresses these
objectives in two parts. The first part, which is largely
descriptive, reviews existing conditions and summarizes
Iraq's considerable accomplishments over the past
decades in developing and managing water resources. The
second part investigates challenges and priorities-how to
balance the needs of short-term reconstruction and the
long-term infrastructure and institutional development
requirements. Overall, the report recommends interim donor
assistance to the Government of Iraq through support for a
combination of policy work, technical assistance, and
priority investments.

Date of publication
Noviembre 2014
Geographical focus

Despite decades of war and instability,
Iraq's abundant natural resources, strategic geographic
location and cultural history endow it with tremendous
potential for growth and diverse economic development.
Driven by windfall oil revenues in recent years the
Government of Iraq (GoI) has invested heavily in rebuilding
infrastructure with abundant oil reserves ensuring steady
progress. However, decades of socialist policies have
tightly bound Iraq's economy to the state. The private
sector has had little opportunity or incentive to invest,
operate efficiently or expand. Moreover, Iraq's
conflicts have led to pervasive insecurity, an exodus of
educated and skilled Iraqis, isolation from global networks
of information and trade, and major damage to infrastructure.

Date of publication
Enero 2015
Geographical focus

This economy profile for Doing Business
2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Iraq. To
allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data
for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each
indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a
series of annual reports measuring the regulations that
enhance business activity and those that constrain it.
Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business; for
2015 Iraq ranks 156. A high ease of doing business ranking
means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the
starting and operation of a local firm. Doing Business
presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and
the protection of property rights that can be compared
across 189 economies from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe and over
time. Doing Business measures regulations affecting 11 areas
of the life of a business known as indicators. Ten of these
areas are included in this year's ranking on the ease
of doing business: starting a business, dealing with
construction permits, getting electricity, registering
property, getting credit, protecting minority investors,
paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts,
and resolving insolvency. Doing Business also measures labor
market regulation, which is not included in this year's
ranking. The data in this report are current as of June 1,
2014 (except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover
the period from January to December 2013).

Date of publication
Junio 2014
Geographical focus

This economy profile presents the Doing
Business indicators for Iraq. In a series of annual reports,
Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms
in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of
business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving
insolvency and trading across borders. This year's
report data cover regulations measured from June 2012
through May 2013. The report is the 11th edition of the
Doing Business series.

Date of publication
Enero 2015
Geographical focus

Iraq appears to have firmly entered the
ranks of upper middle-income countries in 2012, having
experienced strong economic growth following the
establishment of a civilian elected government in 2005-06.
In 2012 the years of growth culminated in a per capita GDP
of 2472 constant 2005 US$. This three-volume poverty and
inclusion assessment provides the first in-depth analysis of
Iraq's economic and social development during the
period of 2007 to 2012. Volume 1 is an overview of the
economic climate in Iraq, providing brushstroke descriptions
of its poverty reduction plans, labor markets, public health
data, and education focal points. Volume 2 is a nine-chapter
report on the years between 2007 and 2012, a period of
relative stability in Iraq. 2007 marks the end of sectarian
violence, which lasted until 2012, prior to the militancy
and insurgency in the northern governorates of the summer of
2014. The country has been a nexus of conflict and fragility
since the early 1980s, and has experienced multiple types of
conflict: insurgency, international war, sectarian strife,
persistent terrorism, regional fragmentation, and spillovers
from conflict in other countries. What should have been a
promising endowment of natural resources of land, oil and
gas, as well of human capital, did not provide the
foundation for poverty reduction and shared prosperity. The
realization of potential was confounded by war and
repression. A key priority of the Government of Iraq since
2005-06 has been to fill the huge knowledge gap in terms of
a deeper understanding of the state of the economy and of a
range of socioeconomic indicators of welfare with the
objective of building a strong evidence base for effective
policy making. The rich analyses presented in this report go
well beyond counting the poor. It gives an incisive
understanding of the multi-layered development challenges
faced by the nation, which serves as a testament to the
commitment of the Government of Iraq, the staff of the
Central Statistics Office, and the Kurdistan Region
Statistics Office. It will form the basis for a new strategy
for Iraq's development and ensure broad-based welfare
improvements for the population. Volume 3 consists of nine
annexes and nine references in the forms of tables, boxes,
and equations used in the methodologies.

Date of publication
Julio 2015
Geographical focus

Measuring poverty and tracking it over
time is an important prerequisite to national economic
planning. Absence of official data on household expenditure
or poverty line hampered the ability of Iraqi policymakers
to understand the extent of the problem, analyze their
causes, and devise appropriate policies. Iraq household
socioeconomic survey (IHSES) 2006-07 was the first survey of
its kind since 1988 to cover all 18 governorates. The survey
collected rich information on income, expenditure,
employment, housing, education, health, and other
socioeconomic indicators. Building on the experience of the
first IHSES survey and using international best practice on
sampling and questionnaire design and survey implementation,
the second round of IHSES was fielded in 201-/13. To fill
the data gap, a larger survey was designed to collect
information on correlates of household welfare like
demographic characteristics, education, occupation, housing,
and assets and estimate small-area poverty rates using
projection methods. This report presents results from the
exercise, the first of its kind for Iraq. Poverty mapping
not only provides a visual representation of poverty at
subnational levels, it also reveals pockets of poverty and
islands of prosperity where they exist. This knowledge is
useful to inform decisions on policy design and targeting of
development projects and programs.

Date of publication
Enero 1979

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) - currently ratified by 187 countries - is the only human rights treaty that deals specifically with rural women (Art. 14). Adopted in 1979 by the United Nations Generally Assembly, entered into force in 1981. The Convention defines discrimination against women as follows:

For the purposes of the present Convention, the term "discrimination against women" shall mean any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field (Art. 1).

The Convention covers civil and political rights, as well as economic, social and cultural rights. Notably, it contains obligations on State Parties also in respect of discrimination by private parties, or in private contexts. Furthermore, CEDAW considers both de jure (in law) and de facto (in practice) discrimination. States that ratified - or otherwise acceded to - the Convention are legally bound to put its provisions in practice, even if they made reservations, which shouldn't be in any way "incompatible with the object and purpose" of the Convention (Art. 28).

Because it sets an international standard of women's human rights in areas such as education, employment, health care, marriage and family relations, politics, finance, and law, CEDAW provides a platform for lobbying governments to promote gender equality and hold them accountable at international level. CEDAW has been an important advocacy tool of the women's movement over the last 30 years.

States Parties of the Convention should submit periodic reports to the CEDAW Committee on the legislative, judicial, administrative or other measures which they have adopted to give effect to the provisions of the Convention (Art. 18). Civil society can present "shadow reports".  

Art. 14, 15 and 16 of CEDAW specifically deal with rural women, ownership of land, inheritance rights and right to access property. You can read the Convention on the OHCHR website, where you can also find information on past and current Sessions of the CEDAW Committe, including official States' Reports and civil society "shadow reports", the Committee's Concluding Observations, and General Recommendations.

Finally, you can find information for NGO participation.

Date of publication
Enero 1983
Geographical focus

This Law aims to manage and develop the pasture by identifying the areas of rough grazing, planning the grazing according to scientific bases, protecting the natural vegetation, conserving water resources and organizing their use, and conducting studies and researches for the protection of rough grazing. The provisions of this Law concern the state-owned properties allocated for pasture and exclude cultivated lands and other particular cases. The Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform is responsible for regulating the pasture and organizing the livestock movement according to the seasons and the regions. It is forbidden to drill artesian wells and to cut plants or trees in pasturelands. The Law determines the sanctions in case of damage to the pasturelands.

Date of publication
Enero 1970
Geographical focus

This Law consists of 5 Chapters divided into 52 articles: Definition of agricultural ownership (I); Distribution (II); Agricultural relations (III); Agricultural cooperative societies (IV); Miscellaneous articles (V).

Date of publication
Noviembre 1981
Geographical focus

There shall be established the Iraqi Company for Contracts of Land Reclamation under the Council of Ministers. The Company shall execute projects on land reclamation and operate as a contractor in this field. The Company shall have legal personality, financial and administrative independence and full legal competence to carry out its functions inside or outside Iraq (art. 1). Properties of the Company shall be considered "State domains" (art. 7). It seems that the Company may sell or lease reclaimed lands (please see art. 2, comma 1). The Company shall have as executive organ a Board of Directors and the President of the Company shall be its supreme Head. (12 articles).

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