conservation

Date of publication
Enero 2011
Geographical focus

This Project Information Note (PIN) outlines an initial application to the Plan Vivo Foundation for working with select pastoralist and hunter-gatherer communities in Mongo wa Mono village, Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania (34°30’/03°30’S). By working in conjunction with both traditional leaders and the elected village government, Carbon Tanzania (CT) and Ujamaa Community Resource Trust (UCRT) aim to create a system of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) through carbon storage, which will enhance and diversify local incomes, strengthen local natural resource management, land tenure, and management capacity, and contribute to local, national, and global environmental conservation aims. This will be achieved by reinforcing and strengthening the implementation of the current land use plan  and village by-laws by creating a long-term payment system for
reforestation using native species and reducing deforestation and the associated causes such as agricultural farming and pole cutting through improved forest conservation and management.

Date of publication
Enero 2009
Geographical focus

This study looks at the impact of subdivision and sedentarization of pastoral lands on wildlife numbers and production in a savanna ecosystem of southern Kenya. The study uses aerial counts over a period of 33 years to compare changes in wildlife populations on two adjacent and ecologically similar Maasai group ranches. During the period under study, one group ranch was subdivided and settled. The other remained communally owned under shifting seasonal use. Wildlife populations decreased sharply on the privatized ranch following subdivision and increased steadily on the adjacent ranch where pastoralists continued mobile pastoralism. The results of multivariate analysis show that sedentarization and settlement distribution accounts for wildlife declines on the subdivided ranch. Both the direct displacement
of wildlife and the reduction in grass production following a switch from seasonal to permanent grazing associated with sedentarization are discussed as causes of wildlife loss. Given the demand for title deeds among pastoralists to counter land losses, the resulting sedentarization is likely to become the biggest threat to wildlife in the East African savannas.

Date of publication
Enero 2011
Geographical focus

This paper presents a discussion of the communal tenure system in Olkiramatian, a group ranch in the southern rangelands of Kenya which has granted the residents the flexibility and choice to pursue diversification alternatives that demand open landscapes. The local governance system, on the other hand, has provided an institutional framework for apportioning land and resources to divergent economic practices, and for collectively overseeing and managing livelihoods activities.  In contrast to other Maasai areas where land is individually owned, people in Olkiramatian have the added benefit of engaging in “collective” land use activities, such as conservation and eco-tourism. At this community level, the residents jointly own and manage the land, which, they are also using to experiment on emerging economic opportunities.

Date of publication
Enero 2007
Geographical focus

Conservation enterprises are commercial activities designed to create benefit flows that support a conservation objective. The Koija ‘Starbeds’ Ecolodge was created jointly by a community group, a private sector partner and the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) to help protect a critical wildlife corridor and habitat along the Ewaso Nyiro River in the Samburu Heartland (www.awf.org). Many conservation enterprises claim success mainly based on their noble intentions,
but in fact are heavily subsidized commercial projects. Six years after the Koija enterprise opened for business, this paper looks at its performance based on the triple bottom line of commercial success, conservation impact and improvement of livelihoods. The paper concludes that the Koija Starbeds have shown very good commercial success, with good but less clear-cut results on conservation impact and livelihoods. The paper also makes recommendations for future conservation enterprises in similar areas in Kenya.

Date of publication
Enero 2006
Geographical focus

Between 1999 and 2002, interviews were conducted in Laikipia District to examine whether pastoralists also experience conflict, and to determine whether wildlife conservation provided appreciable benefits to residents, or fostered pro-conservation attitudes
among residents. Three properties, Endana, Koija and Mpala, were selected to include the two primary land uses in Laikipia (livestock and agriculture) and two levels of wildlife-based benefits (indirect benefits and direct benefits from a locally-owned tourism operation). People were negative about many aspects of local wildlife conservation, especially animals
that raided crops or were dangerous. Fundamental differences in attitudes were attributable to primary land use; within ethnic groups, people practising agriculture were less tolerant of elephants than people practising pastoralism. Despite evidence that elephants may compete with livestock for forage, ecological competition was not a primary concern
among cattle-keeping people. In communities that received indirect benefits from tourism or wildlife, the connection between wildlife and employment or aid in kind was usually overlooked. Unlike elsewhere in Africa, education and wealth did not correlate
with positive attitudes towards wildlife because the tourism programme was improving the situation and the outlook of people lacking education and material wealth. Pastoral people with indirect financial benefits expressed positive attitudes towards elephants for
aesthetic reasons, while pastoral people with direct benefits cited financial rewards derived from tourism but attributed aesthetic values to livingwith elephants. The programme in the pastoral community receiving benefits was exemplary in that benefits were tangible,
and the participants appreciated the linkage between benefits and active conservation.Land conversion from pastoralism to agriculture threatens elephant survival, not only in terms of habitat loss, but also in terms of lost tolerance among people who have shifted to farming.

Date of publication
Enero 2008
Geographical focus

The Kenyan Dry land Livestock and Wildlife Environment Interface Project (DLWEIP), An African Union Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) and African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) have developed a Community Scout Based Natural Resources Monitoring Programme for Naibung’a Conservancy of Laikipia District in February 2007. A wildlife and habitat monitoring programme was established at four group ranches in Naibung’a conservancy including Tiamamut, Kijabe, Koija and Nkiloriti.

Date of publication
Enero 2008
Geographical focus

In most areas within the livestock wildlife environment interface, nomadism by pastoralists is gradually being replaced by sedentarism and migration corridors are closed by settlements from the ever-increasing human population. Faced by a reducing pasture resource and yet slow to adopt de-stocking, pastoralists have now embraced the practical and novel ‘Conservancy’ concept in order to earn from tourism and subsidise income from livestock. However, sustaining wildlife on pasture land is a challenge that has now found a solution in the form of conservancy zonation schemes.

Date of publication
Enero 2011
Geographical focus

IUCN’s work in Garba Tula (GT) through this project has now been underway for almost two years, and to date a number of activities have been implemented in the area. This has included: sensitization and awareness raising of local community members; providing support to help strengthen the operations of the Resource Advocacy Programme (RAP – a local NGO working in the Garba Tula area); and supporting work carried out by RAP members to document traditional institutions and strategies for governing natural resources in the Garba Tula area. The results of the assessment presented in this document build on this previous work in the area, and aim to establish baseline information on existing natural resource governance arrangements in Garba Tula, and to identify how these governance mechanisms can best be improved. This work is intended to contribute to the ultimate aim of the overall project that focuses on improving the sustainable use and conservation of natural resources, and strengthening the resilience of livelihoods that directly depend on natural resources.

Date of publication
Enero 2011
Geographical focus

Conservation business is booming in East Africa, but is threatened by major long term wildlife declines. Pastoralist rangelands are among the highest-earning and fastest-growing tourism destinations, but their populations have mean incomes and development indices consistently below national averages. Governments and conservation organisations see green development, often through community-based conservation (CBC), as building sustainable livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in EA rangelands. The paper looks at the contribution conservation makes to Maasai pastoralist livelihoods, based on studies in two Tanzanian and three Kenyan sites differing in proximity to protected areas, urban settlements, markets and infrastructure, and in
wildlife-related revenues, as well as in national economic and political context. Conservation brings little to household income in most sites compared to returns from livestock, cultivation, and off-farm work. Special circumstances mean conservation business brings local benefits in the Mara, but are rarely achieved elsewhere. Pace and scale of conservation-driven loss of access to resources has serious implications for livelihoods security, while negative tradeoffs from CBC and “conservation with development” initiatives may drive both impoverishment and wildlife declines.

Date of publication
Enero 2011
Geographical focus

This report provides an overview of land use conflicts in Loliondo. According to the Village Land Act No. 5 1999, all land in Loliondo is classified as Village Land. However, there is spatial overlap of Village Lands and a Game Controlled Areas. Prior to 2009 GCAs had not bearing on land use or management; however the 2009 Wildlife Conservation Act prohibits farming and livestock grazing in GCA. This new Act poses a huge problem to pastoral commuinities. An economic summary provides a better understanding of initial revenue that could be generated from Loliondo. This summary informs the final section of the report, which evaluated the land tenure and land use options and the various implications associated with each.

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