Azerbaijan Republic is in the Southern Caucasus, between longitudes 444 and 522 East and latitudes 388 and 422 North. Its territory is 86,400 square km. The country has a population of 8,000,000 and borders on the Russian Federation in the North (390 km), the Iran Islamic Republic in the South (765 km), Turkey in the South-west (13 km), Armenia in the West (1,007 km) and the Georgian Republic in the North-west (480 km). Azerbaijan is on the western coast of the Caspian Sea with a coastline of 713 km. and has been an important trade and transport point since the beginning of commerce along the Great Silk Road. Upper Garabakh and the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic are part of Azerbaijan. Over half of its territory (59.9 percent) is mountains (foothills 17.5 percent, mountains 33 percent, and high mountains - 9.4 percent) and the rest (40.1 percent) plains and lowlands. 27 percent of the territory is above 1,000 m, but 18 percent is below the mean level of the World Oceans.