Reports & Research

Date of publication
Septiembre 2016
Geographical focus

Este informe presenta los hallazgos de la Misión Independiente de Constatación de los Hechos de Yanacocha (la «Misión»), realizada entre agosto de 2015 y marzo de 2016. A la Misión se le encargó examinar un conflicto entre una empresa minera aurífera multinacional y una familia campesina local en un área alto andina del norte del Perú. En la raíz del conflicto se encuentra una disputa sobre una parcela de tierra denominada «Tragadero Grande». Ubicada dentro de la Comunidad Campesina de Sorochuco, Tragadero Grande se encuentra dentro de un proyecto minero multimillonario planificado denominado «Conga». Tanto la familia como la empresa reclaman distintos derechos para tener acceso a la parcela de tierra y utilizarla. Desde mayo de 2011, la disputa de tierras se convirtió en un conflicto entre varias partes que comprende intentos de desalojo, la defensa corporativa de la posesión, numerosos casos judiciales y apelaciones, y acusaciones de violaciones de derechos humanos.

Las principales partes del conflicto son la familia Chaupe y Minera Yanacocha. Newmont Mining Corporation («Newmont») es el accionista mayoritario de Minera Yanacocha y el operador de la mina Yanacocha. Buenaventura, la mayor empresa minera cotizada en la bolsa del Perú, es el otro accionista mayoritario y la Corporación Financiera Internacional del Banco Mundial («IFC») tiene una participación minoritaria. Otras partes involucradas en el conflicto incluyen a una organización no gubernamental de Cajamarca («ONG») GRUFIDES, como defensora de la familia Chaupe, el proveedor de seguridad privada de Minera Yanacocha, SECURITAS, e instituciones gubernamentales, incluida la Policía Nacional del Perú, (la «Policía») y el poder judicial. Minas Conga es otra parte significativa ya que es la entidad corporativa que le compró Tragadero Grande a la Comunidad Campesina de Sorochuco a mediados de la década de los 90. Minera Yanacocha adquirió Minas Conga en 2001 y con ella a Tragadero Grande. Minas Conga ya no existe como una entidad corporativa.

Newmont inició la Misión en respuesta a persistentes acusaciones por parte de la familia y de ONG locales, nacionales e internacionales con respecto a las cuales Minera Yanacocha había estado implicada en violaciones de derechos humanos como parte de la disputa de tierras. Con relación a estas acusaciones, se han planteado diferentes preguntas acerca del cumplimiento de Minera Yanacocha de las normas de derechos humanos internacionales a las que se suscribe Newmont. Un Director independiente fue designado para dirigir la Misión, bajo la supervisión de RESOLVE, organización sin fines de lucro dedicada a la construcción del consenso multisectorial. Newmont financió las actividades de la Misión con todos los fondos del proyecto transferidos a RESOLVE. 

Date of publication
Septiembre 2016
Geographical focus

This report presents the findings of the Yanacocha Independent Fact Finding Mission (the “Mission”), conducted between August 2015 and March 2016. The Mission was tasked with examining a conflict between a multinational gold mining company and a local campesino family, in the high Andes of northern Peru. At the root of the conflict is a dispute over a parcel of land called “Tragadero Grande”. Located within the Campesino Community of Sorochuco, Tragadero Grande falls within the footprint of a planned multi-billion dollar mining project called “Conga”. Both the family and the company claim distinct rights to access and use the parcel of land. From May 2011, the land dispute evolved into a multi-party conflict involving eviction attempts, corporate defense of possession, numerous legal cases and appeals, and allegations of human rights violations.

The primary parties in the conflict are the Chaupe family and Minera Yanacocha. Newmont Mining Corporation (“Newmont”) is the majority shareholder of Minera Yanacocha and operator of the Yanacocha mine. Buenaventura, Peru’s largest publicly-traded mining company, is the other major shareholder and The World Bank Group’s International Finance Corporation (“IFC”) owns a minority share. Other parties involved in the conflict include a Cajamarca non-government organization (“NGO”) GRUFIDES, as advocates for the Chaupe family, Minera Yanacocha’s private security provider, SECURITAS, and government institutions, including the Peru National Police (“Police”) and the judiciary. Minas Conga is a significant other party as the corporate entity that purchased Tragadero Grande from the Campesino Community of Sorochuco in the mid-1990s. Minera Yanacocha acquired Minas Conga in 2001, and with it Tragadero Grande. Minas Conga no longer exists as a corporate entity.

Newmont initiated the Mission in response to persistent allegations by the family and local, national and international NGOs that Minera Yanacocha had been involved in perpetrating human rights violations as part of the land dispute. Linked to these allegations, questions have been raised about Minera Yanacocha’s adherence to international human rights standards to which Newmont subscribes. An independent Director was appointed to conduct the Mission under the auspices of RESOLVE, a non-profit organization dedicated to multi-stakeholder consensus building. Newmont financed the Mission’s activities with all project funds being transferred to RESOLVE. 

African Development Bank (AfDB) Logo
Date of publication
Septiembre 2016
Geographical focus

Source: BAD

Le continent africain s’urbanise rapidement. D’ici 2035, une majorité d’africains vivront dans des zones urbaines. Mais la croissance rapide des villes ne s’accompagne pas de suffisamment d’emplois productifs et de services publics de qualité. Cependant, l’urbanisation possède le plus grand potentiel pour accélérer le développement économique, social et environnemental ; même les zones rurales devraient bénéficier de villes africaines dynamiques et durables. Exploiter ce potentiel requiert de nouvelles et ambitieuses stratégies nationales de développement urbain. Bien que les priorités dépendront des contextes spécifiques à chaque pays, la plupart devront clarifier les droits fonciers, fournir des infrastructures et des services de meilleure qualité et mieux gérer la croissance des villes intermédiaires.

Date of publication
Diciembre 2004
Geographical focus

This report is the fruit of collaboration between ILC, IFAD and FAO. It provides information on the historical background of the Convention and its Optional Protocol, the working methods of the Committee, as well as a summary of information provided in reports of selected countries. NOTE: See also the 2010 update of this document.

Date of publication
Diciembre 2007
Geographical focus

Although Cambodia has made significant progress in improving human well-being, poverty in rural areas persists. This Human Development Report for Cambodia assesses the state of rural livelihoods and their relationship with natural resources. It describes the status of human development at the regional and provincial levels, and distinguishes high performance areas from those which require more attention. Several key problems are identified, including: widening inequality in incomes and opportunities; persistent rural poverty; unacceptably high maternal mortality, or death during childbirth; high rates of child malnutrition; poverty compelling children to leave school at an early age; land inequality pose serious challenges to ordinary people’s livelihoods. The report delves into policy recommendations and opportunities to galvanise rural areas. It emphasises that the highest benefits are likely to be generated from targeted efforts in the following areas: fair and effective governance of land; a substantial increase of public investments in agricultural productivity; broadened and diversified job-creating sources of growth in both rural and urban areas; substantial investments in human capabilities; ensuring a ‘resource blessing’ from offshore oil and gas.

Cambodia Development Resource Institute
Date of publication
Diciembre 2007
Geographical focus

ABSTRACTED FROM THE SUMMARY: The impact of land titles on social and economic development and poverty reduction in the rural sector can be optimized by targeting land-titling efforts in areas where government agencies, NGOs, and private investors are actively engaged. The benefits for disadvantaged households can also be increased by policies that specifically link land-titling efforts to pro-poor development objectives. In this sense, active consultation and collaboration among all development actors in support of LMAP’s efforts would enhance the benefits from land titles for all landholders. The research methodology employed in the baseline survey has been quasi-experimental in nature using quantitative data collected in household interviews with a structured, close-ended survey instrument (See Annex A). The follow up survey should incorporate qualitative research approaches and tools into the overall methodology in order to provide more substance and texture to the household survey data, as many of the subtle yet important nuances concerning the economic and social impacts of land titles cannot be effectively captured by a standard household survey instrument.

Date of publication
Diciembre 2007
Geographical focus

This ADI study in collaboration with the Land Information Centre seeks to understand the relationship between land titling and poverty reduction in two sangkat of Prey Nup District, Sihanoukville Municipality. More specifically, it attempts to document the manner of landholder acquisition and the land titling process of the Land Management and Administration Project (LMAP) in four villages of the two sangkat; to examine land sales and land transfer processes before and after titling; to explore the link between land titles and access to credit; and to assess the contribution of land titles to security of land tenure and the resolution of land disputes. A survey questionnaire was conducted with 264 households in four villages of the two sangkat. In addition key informant interviews were convened with villagers, LMAP officials, and district managers of lending institutions. In the two sangkat villagers actively participated in the mapping and measurement of their lands for titling under LMAP and more than 90 percent of all agricultural plots owned by the households surveyed were titled under LMAP. This was a remarkable achievement. Land sales in the two sangkat were higher in the four and a half years since LMAP implementation than in the previous fourteen years combined. While higher land values benefited village sellers, proceeds from land sales were spent mainly on health costs and rarely invested in productive pursuits. Meanwhile, the majority of land sales after LMAP were still transacted by making sales contracts with notification at village and commune levels without processing the transfers through the Land Registry. This practice of transferring land extralegally threatened to undermine the viability of the systematic land titling program. Of note, more than 90 percent of all households surveyed had never used an LMAP title as collateral for a loan. A major benefit conferred through LMAP was the stronger tenure security on LMAP titled lands. While LMAP titling did not immediately translate into poverty reduction for most of the recipients it did constitute a contributing component of development interventions and reforms with potential for moving people out of poverty and allowing them to share more equitably in economic growth.

Date of publication
Diciembre 2007
Geographical focus

The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to describe the legal and institutional framework governing land in Cambodia, as well as the current status of land ownership and use; (2) to estimate the impact of access to land on human development and the potential benefits from land reforms; and (3) to discuss implications for land polices and challenges for implementing land reforms.

Date of publication
Diciembre 2006
Geographical focus

ABSTRACTED FROM PREFACE: This volume... present a rich set of articles presenting issues specific to a number of continents and regions, countries and communities, land tenures and land tenure databases. The articles in this volume are unique in presenting a set of regional perspectives on this important issue. They demonstrate the importance of collection, recording and analysis of land tenure data in all regions. These data are crucial for improved decision and policy making in the fields of economic development, food security and environmental sustainabilitiy, owing to the variability and complexities of land tenure systems and arrangements; nor do land tenure databases permit standard solutions or models.

Date of publication
Diciembre 2004
Geographical focus

ABSTRACTED FROM THE MISSION STATEMENT: The primary purpose of his mis,sion was for the Special Representative to update himself on the human rights situation in Cambodia for his report to the 61 st session of the Commission on Human Rights. He paid particular attention to the management of land and natural resources, the continuing problem of impunity, and to corruption which impacts negatively on the realisation of a range of human rights and distorts the allocation of economic resources so as to further exacerbate existing inequalities. He examined issues of justice sector reform, freedoms of association and assembly, indigenous land rights and issues relating to the proposed trials of senior Khmer Rouge leaders. He reiterated his call for the establishment of an independent commission to investigate the deplorable phenomenon of mob killings. He visited, in the company of representatives of the Governor, the former theatre "Hamacheat" in central Phnom Penh where over one hundred families live. He was shocked by the inhumane conditions he found. Mr. Leuprecht releases today a report on land concessions for economic purposes from a human rights perspective. In his foreword to the report, he states that the policies are wrong, that companies have been given rights over land that are very similar to ownership, and yet they have little or no regard for the welfare of the people, and contribute little to state revenue. The Special Representative is calling for full disclosure of information concerning all concessions in Cambodia, including economic concessions. The aim of the report is to contribute to better public understanding of the issues and to help bring about the changes in policy and practice that are necessary for the sake of Cambodia, its rural poor and for future generations

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