With the expansion of cities and urban infrastructure comes a growing need to better understand the relationship between people and land in urban and peri-urban areas.

Urbanization is a global phenomenon. Countries throughout the world are rapidly urbanizing, particularly in the developing world, and for the first time in human history the majority of people today live in urban areas [1]. By 2050, 66% of the world’s population is projected to live in urban areas. The most urbanized regions include Northern America (82% of the population living in urban areas in 2014), Latin America and the Caribbean (80%) and Europe (73%). In contrast, Africa and Asia remain mostly rural, but are urbanizing faster than the other regions and are projected to become 56 and 64% urban, respectively, by 2050 [2].

The causes of urbanization include natural population growth and rural-urban migration, which can result from under-employment in rural areas, poor agricultural conditions, reclassification of rural to urban land, conflicts in rural areas, and from the prospect of better economic opportunities in urban areas. The consequences of rural-urban migration include the densification of certain parts of the city, often resulting in informal settlements. Urban sprawl and the expansion of the urban footprint may also result—either through formal or informal processes.   

Urban population projections highlight the increasing demand for land, both for housing and food production, as well as for a variety of economic activities related to urban land.  However, since land is a limited resource and increasingly unavailable within cities across the world, intensified pressures on urban land can lead to a shortage of land and skyrocketing land values. To the urban poor, this means that access to land becomes increasingly difficult, be it for housing, food production, or trading. Lack of access to land can result in “informal” or unregulated land management and occupation.

Meanwhile, as competition for land intensifies, nearly 70% of land systems across the globe remain undocumented [3]. Particularly in developing countries, enormous surfaces are covered under social tenures, informal and overlapping rights. Land regularization is not a feasible option to the majority of informal dwellers due to financial, technical and judicial barriers. As a result, rapid urbanization is often associated with a decrease of tenure security, particularly for the urban poor. This can negatively impact millions of people.

In 2015, the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing as a Component of the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living acknowledged the increasing rates of forced evictions with impunity, the expansion of informal settlements (often without basic services like water, sewage, electricity or roads), the development of unaffordable rental properties, and the tenure insecurity of millions of people [4].

With security of tenure, people are more likely to invest in their families, homes, and futures [5]. When households and communities have secure tenure, they are more willing and able to engage in housing and settlement development processes. When land tenure is secure, land can be a cornerstone for economic growth and an incentive for investment, but when land rights are insecure, this can lead to conflicts, instability and the exclusion of vulnerable groups, such as women, Indigenous Peoples and the poor.

 

 

 

Indicators

Land tenure rights recognition (urban) measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit
Index (A; D)

Land use planning guides expansion in the largest city measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit
Index (A; D)

Population living in slums is the proportion of the urban population living in slum households.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Poverty gap at urban poverty line is the mean shortfall from the poverty line (counting the nonpoor as having zero shortfall) as a percentage of the national urban poverty line.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Process for urban expansion clear, public, respects rights measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit
Index (A; D)

Urban group rights recognition in informal areas measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit
Index (A; D)

Urban land tenure rights are (i) recognized and (ii) protected in practice measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit
Index (A; D)

Urban population refers to the share (%) of people living in Urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Rural Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Mapping

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Population living in slums is the proportion of the urban population living in slum households.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Ranking

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Urban land tenure rights are (i) recognized and (ii) protected in practice measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

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Latest News

24 Abril 2017
Brasil

PRESENTACIÓN

Desde la década de 1990, la globalización se ha convertido en un tema recurrente en los estudios urbanos y en la gestión de las ciudades. No obstante el creciente intercambio e interdependencia entre ciudades de distintos países, la apertura más profunda de los mercados ocurrida durante esta década provocó una coyuntura que cuestiona la autonomía local y sus especificidades.

3 Febrero 2017
Argentina

La Universidad Católica de Santa Fe a través de su Dirección de Posgrado y el Centro Experimental de la Vivienda Económica (CEVE), dependiente del CONICET y la Asociación de la Vivienda Económica (AVE), informan que hasta el 1 de marzo se encuentran abiertas las inscripciones para una nueva cohorte de la Especialización en Gestión integral del Hábitat.

Latest Events

23 Agosto 2017 to 25 Agosto 2017

Ubicación

Curitiba, Brasil Curitiba
Brasil
BR
América Latina y el Caribe
Brasil
Portugal
España

Nos dias 23,24 e 25 de agosto do presente ano, levar-se-á a cabo o TERCEIRO CONGRESSO IBEROAMERICANO DE SOLO URBANO na cidade de Curitiba, Brasil, com o tema “O solo na nova agenda urbana”, organizado de maneira conjunta pelo Colégio Mexiquence AC, a Universidade Federal do Paraná, a Universidade Pontifícia Católica do Paraná e a Universidade Positivo.

9 Mayo 2017 to 12 Mayo 2017

Ubicación

Centro Brasileiro para Conservação da Natureza e Desenvolvimento Sustentável
Rua Christovam Lopes de Carvalho nº27, Sala 801
Viçosa, Minas Gerais
Brasil
BR
Brasil

Com intuito de promover conhecimentos e experiência desenvolvidas na recuperação e degradação ambiental nos diversos biomas brasileiros, o evento pretende contribuir com a difícil tarefa de restauração desses biomas.

1 Mayo 2017 to 31 Mayo 2017

Ubicación

Online
Estados Unidos
US
Global

DESCRIPTION

Rights to land and resources are at the center of our most pressing development issues: poverty reduction, food security, conflict, urbanization, gender equality, climate change, and resilience. Secure Land Tenure and Property Rights (LTPR) create incentives for investment, broad-based economic growth, and good stewardship of natural resources. Insecure property rights and weak land governance systems often provoke conflict and instability, which can trap communities, countries, and entire regions in a cycle of poverty.

24 Abril 2017

Ubicación

Curitiba
Brasil
BR
Brasil

Los días 23, 24 y 25 de agosto del presente año, se llevará a cabo el TERCER CONGRESO IBEROAMERICANO DE SUELO URBANO en la ciudad de Curitiba, Brasil, con el tema “El suelo en la nueva agenda urbana”, organizado de manera conjunta por El Colegio Mexiquense AC, la Universidad Federal do Paraná, la Pontificia Universidad Católica do Paraná y la Universidad Positivo.

Debates

Cerrado
23 Enero 2017 to 24 Febrero 2017
Facilitators
Raquel Ludermir Bernardino
América Latina y el Caribe

En América Latina y Caribe (ALC), millones de personas no tienen acceso a suelo adecuado para vivienda o viven sin seguridad de tenencia, con el temor constante de desalojos, reubicaciones injustificadas, y expulsiones sistemáticas por presiones del mercado. Los conflictos de suelo son elemento clave de la agenda de incidencia de los defensores del derecho humano a una vivienda adecuada.

Organizations

Library

Displaying 1 - 6 of 1430
Reports & Research
Journal Articles & Books
Diciembre 2017
Rwanda
África

Land change in Kigali, Rwanda, is examined using Intensity Analysis, which measures the temporal stationarity of changes among categories. Maps for 1981, 2002 and 2014 were produced that show the land categories Built, Vegetated and Other, which is composed mainly of croplands and bare surfaces. Land change accelerated from the first time interval (1981–2002) to the second time interval (2002–2014), as increased human and economic activities drove land transformation.

Journal Articles & Books
Diciembre 2017
Italia

The relationship between sustainable urban development and environmental sustainability is crucial to every strategy of urban transformation, renewal and regeneration. In particular, urban regeneration entails programmes of urban transformation that involve the rehabilitation of existing parts of a city, re-use previously built-up area and abandoned buildings, and redevelop blighted urban spaces to increase urban sustainability.

Reports & Research
Training Resources & Tools
Diciembre 2017

Durban is located within a global biodiversity hotspot, and still contains a wealth of biodiversity. Some of this is protected in nature reserves, but much of it is in private hands or in communal lands on the city’s periphery. City managers are divided over the level of attention that should be given to preserving these remaining natural areas.

The Partnership for Action Conference: Summary of Conference Outcomes cover image
Conference Papers & Reports
Noviembre 2017
África
África subsahariana

 

Reports & Research
Octubre 2017
Mozambique

O Perfil Rápido do Sector Urbano para Sustentabilidade (RUSPS) é um processo de avaliação rápida e proactiva de necessidades urbanas e lacunas de capacitação institucional a níveis nacional e das cidades. Esta avaliação está sendo implementada actualmente em mais de 20 países em África e Estados árabes. A metodologia RUSPS consiste em três fases: (1) uma abordagem participativa de perfil urbano, a níveis nacional e local, com enfoque na