Camboya

Land lies at the center of debates about Cambodia’s socio-economic development. For farmers in the fertile lowlands, private land ownership rights have enabled recovery of their livelihoods after decades of conflict. Meanwhile, the resource-rich uplands and border areas have been the site of large-scale land acquisitions for cash crop production and extractive industries.[1] The resulting displacement and land disputes have spread to urban and lowland areas, resulting in one of the highest rates of land inequality in Asia.[2]

Prior to the French colonial time, all land in Cambodia belonged to the King.[3] The notion of land ownership was introduced under the French Protectorate and was maintained in the post-independence era[4] until the abolition of private property by the Khmer Rouge. The Paris Peace Agreement in 1991 ended Vietnamese occupation and established a market economy, leading to the restoration of private land ownership in the 1993 Constitution.[5]      

Agriculture is the main occupation for over 70 percent of Cambodians. Rice production relies on the availability of arable land and irrigation systems.[6] In addition to local market demands, the government has set a rice export target of 1 million tons per year.[7] Achieving this target would require an expansion of cultivated land and nearby water sources, a serious challenge in present conditions of drought.[8]

Indicators

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit
Percentage

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit
PPP$ 2011

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Total funding for programmes still ongoing in January 2016 (US $).

Measurement unit
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing in January 2016

Measurement unit
Number

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Mapping

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Compare countries

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Infographics

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT)


Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

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Organizations

Library

Displaying 1 - 6 of 1193
Reports & Research
Diciembre 2017
Camboya

This paper focuses on one community in Cambodia that won back land from a large land deal by grabbing onto the rupture in property relations initiated by a one-year land titling campaign. The study documents the struggle between competing legibility and illegibility projects which the author examines through two moments, one of the state choosing to see its population and their relations to territory, and another in which the state’s excuses for not recognizing smallholders’ claims began to falter.

Reports & Research
Diciembre 2017
Camboya
Viet Nam

This paper explores the divergent processes of agrarian transition in Cambodia and Vietnam and the ways in which they intersect through flows across the border, arguing that it is not possible to understand current processes of agrarian change in Cambodia without being attentive to agrarian histories in Vietnam.

Reports & Research
Diciembre 2017
Camboya

The paper focuses on how climate change mitigation policies and economic land and mining concessions in Prey Lang, Cambodia, accommodate and facilitate each other physically, discursively and economically.

Policy Papers & Briefs
Diciembre 2017
Camboya
Myanmar
Tailandia
Viet Nam

A discussion paper on civil society's participation in land policy-making, focused on the pre-consultation phase of Myanmar's National Land Use Policy. Written by Eben Forbes, with research assistance from Dr. Nu Nu Khin and
Yadana Than Htaik, and published by Land Core Group, Loka Ahlinn and Mekong Region Land Governance in February 2017.

Conference Papers & Reports
Diciembre 2017
Camboya
Myanmar
Viet Nam

The Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG) project and the Forestry Department of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MONREC) co-hosted the “Mekong Region Customary Tenure Workshop” on 7-9 March 2017 in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. This report outlines the main findings of the workshop, illustrated by some statements and case studies as presented by participants.

Institutional & promotional materials
Diciembre 2017
Camboya
Myanmar
Tailandia
Viet Nam

Summary report of Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG)'s online dialogue on 'Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region' held in 2017, containing justification for the dialogue, key take-aways, next steps and recommended resources, published by MRLG in 2017.