Latin America and the Caribbean

Date of publication
Enero 2014
Geographical focus

The Latin America and Caribbean Region
has been at the forefront of global biodiversity
conservation, dedicating 20 percent of its land to protected
areas compared to 13 percent in the rest of the developing
world. This progress has stretched available budgets for
conservation with estimates indicating that a twofold
increase would be necessary to achieve optimal management of
existing protected areas based on 2008 data. Recognizing the
importance of this financing challenge, this document
presents examples of how the region is successfully
exploring news ways and sources of finance for biodiversity
conservation. It is intended as an input to the global
discussions on biodiversity financing drawing from a
selective review of concrete experiences where governments
are tapping nonpublic finance sources in effective
partnerships. The cases reviewed point to common features
contributing to their success: (i) variety in arrangements;
(ii) enabling legal and institutional support; (iii)
capacity based on record of experience; (iv) building social
capital; (v) clarity about conservation objectives; (vi)
strong government leadership in guiding biodiversity
conservation policies and programs.

Date of publication
Enero 2014

Group s gender action plan (GAP) trust
fund has financed a series of programs to promote gender
equality by empowering women to compete in key markets:
land, labor, agriculture, finance and the private sector.
Work and family: Latin American and the Caribbean women in
search of a new balance offer new analysis of how household
decision-making and allocation of resources affects female
labor market outcomes in the region. This project summarizes
over half a decade of gender-related activities, training,
research and results in Latin America and the Caribbean. All
of the GAP-funded cases chosen for this project provide
succinct policy lessons that were: innovative;
results-driven (impact was measured or documented); policy
relevant (clear indications for policy makers);
methodologically strong; have potential for scaling up or
replication. The chapters present policy lessons organized
around four themes of vital importance to women and their
families: (A) access to labor markets; (B) improved
workplace conditions, (C) entrepreneurial and income-earning
opportunities, and (D) increased land titling and
agricultural productivity. And this project includes five
chapters: chapter one is key issues for women s economic
empowerment in Latin; chapter two is boosting women s labor
force participation; chapter three is good gender practices
in the workplace; chapter four is promoting
income-generating opportunities in urban and rural contexts;
chapter five is women s productivity in agriculture.

Date of publication
Abril 2014
Geographical focus

Agricultural growth rates in the Latin
America and the Caribbean (LAC) region have been much slower
than the rest of the developing world. In the regions of
East Asia, South Asia and Middle East and North Africa, the
annual growth of agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
in 1980-2004 exceeded 3 percent, while growth in Sub-
Saharan Africa averaged almost 3 percent. This paper
attempts to present an overview of the agricultural sector
in LAC, discuss its distinctive features, and the potential
role of Information and Communication Technology's
(ICTs) in improving agricultural productivity and market
efficiency in this region. The discussion in this paper will
refer to the evidence provided by studies that evaluate the
impact of ICTs interventions. While the emphasis will be put
on the studies that evaluate interventions in the LAC
region, there will also be references to studies in other
developing economies whenever these are pertinent to the LAC
context. The commercialization of agricultural products has
suffered important transformations in recent decades, posing
big challenges for farmers in the LAC region. Finally, the
adoption of agricultural technologies will also be
constrained by insecure land rights. Investing in
technologies with long-run returns will not be attractive if
farmers are uncertain about their property rights in the
future (Jack, 2011). This is certainly an issue in several
countries in LAC, where land conflicts, expropriation and de
facto ownership are common.

Date of publication
Enero 2014
Geographical focus

The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC)
region has a unique mix of qualities and challenges when it
comes to the environment. It is exceptionally endowed with
natural assets, with globally significant biodiversity and
valuable crops, and also harbors the world s greatest carbon
sink in the Amazon. The purpose of the series is to
contribute to the global knowledge exchange on innovation in
environmental and water resources management and the pursuit
of greener and more inclusive growth. The series addresses
issues relevant to the region s environmental sustainability
agenda from water resources management to environmental
health, natural resource management, biodiversity
conservation, environmental policy, pollution management,
environmental institutions and governance, ecosystem
services, environmental financing, irrigation and climate
change and their linkages to development and growth. The
author presents three successful case studies. The first
case study describes how Colombia designed and implemented
an air quality management program based on public awareness,
evidence-based policy design, and political commitment to
reform. The second case study examines how Brazil is
promoting access to environmental justice through the public
prosecutors model. A third case study shows how the modeling
of climate change and monitoring of glacial retreat in the
Andean countries is fostering decision making to address the
increasingly important challenge of climate change adaptation.

Date of publication
Enero 2014
Geographical focus

Argentina has expanded the use of its
portion of the Parana-Paraguay waterways system for the
transportation of soy and other bulk commodities through an
innovative tolling system that self-finances the dredging
and maintenance of the rivers. Brazil, in turn, is pursuing
a 'green trucking' strategy to improve efficiency
of its cargo haulage industry, reduce petroleum usage, and
curb pollution from trucking. For the entire hemisphere, the
expansion of the Panama Canal will bring post-Panama vessels
and introduce greater scale economies in shipping. The
following sections of this paper provide a more detailed
review of the sectoral objectives, challenges, and way
forward in making Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) growth
greener and more inclusive. It looks back over the
achievements of the demand sectors of urban development and
infrastructure services, energy, urban transport, and water
and sanitation, as well as natural resources and rural
development since Rio 1992. It highlights the achievements
in those areas, and the ability of those accomplishments to
establish a robust path for the region to inclusive green growth.

Date of publication
Marzo 2014
Geographical focus

The present report spotlights the major
challenges and the opportunities that lie ahead in fecal
sludge management and summarizes the findings from four case
studies that describe the current and potential market for
sludge removal, collection, and disposal in peri-urban
areas. These areas, inhabited by a variety of ethnic,
religious, and cultural groups, typically struggle with high
population density, insufficient land use planning, high
citizen insecurity, and low coverage with basic services.
The report demonstrates how technical, financial,
environmental, social, regulatory, political, and
institutional factors interact to create supply and demand
in four markets where coverage with sanitary sewerage
services is below the regional average, namely: Santa Cruz
(Bolivia), Guatemala City (Guatemala), Tegucigalpa
(Honduras), and Managua (Nicaragua).

Date of publication
Marzo 2012
Geographical focus

An adequate supply of infrastructure
services has long been viewed by both academics and policy
makers as a key ingredient for economic development. Over
the past quarter-century, the retrenchment of Latin
America's public sector from its dominant position in
the provision of infrastructure, and the opening up of these
industries to private participation, have renewed the debate
on the role of infrastructure in the region's
development. The focus of this paper is three-fold. First,
it documents, in a comparative cross-regional perspective,
the trends in Latin America's infrastructure
development, as reflected in the quantity and quality of
infrastructure services and the universality of their
access. Overall, this suggests the emergence of an
infrastructure gap vis-a-vis other industrial and developing
regions. Second, it provides an empirical assessment of the
contribution of infrastructure development to growth across
Latin America. Third, it examines the trends in the
financing of infrastructure investment -- documenting the
changing roles of the public and private sectors -- and
analyzes how they have been shaped by macroeconomic policy constraints.

Date of publication
Febrero 2013
Geographical focus

The impacts of climate change on
agriculture are projected to be significant in coming
decades, so response strategies, and their likely costs,
should be evaluated now. That is why this study produced an
open-access, crop-climate-economic impact modeling platform
for Latin America and the Caribbean, that can be extended to
other regions, then modified and improved by users as new
crop, climate, and economic datasets become available. The
new platform projects the likely impacts of agroclimatic
factors on crop productivity, on the basis of climate
projections from two general circulation models, and couples
it with an economic model to derive and evaluate a range of
climate-change scenarios and likely agricultural
productivity and economic impacts over the next several decades.

Date of publication
Diciembre 2014
Geographical focus

Delivering on results is a key to
achieving our Latin America and Caribbean strategy. This
publication presents some of the recent results achieved by
the World Bank Group, our clients, and our partners in the
Latin America and Caribbean Region. The stories reflect our
effort to help clients solve their development challenges
quickly and effectively by providing a suite of financing,
advisory and convening services. This is a way to
demonstrate results in increasing opportunities for all
citizens in key development areas, share them with other
countries facing similar challenges, and learn from them to
innovate and improve further actions.

Date of publication
Octubre 2013
Geographical focus

Financing projects and programs to
mitigate impacts of, and adapt to, the climate change is a
matter of necessity not choice. This green expenditure
policy note looks at factors facilitating the access to
international financial instruments for Latin America and
the Caribbean (LAC) countries that support mitigation of and
adaptation to climate change. This policy note explores two
questions: (i) does the quality of government institutions
matter for enabling action aimed at mitigation or adaptation
to the climate change?; and (ii) what financial instruments
are available to governments in addition to own resources to
address climate change challenges? This policy note aims to
present them with advice on how to achieve greater access to
international financing or co-financing of projects
supporting renewable and alternative energy generation for
transport, agriculture, housing, preservation of unique
ecosystems, and other projects supporting sustainable
development. This policy note describes the climate
challenges facing the LAC region and then discusses the
various climate financing flows. It discusses the factors
affecting LAC countries' access to climate financing,
and how countries can apply to several of the principal
global and regional climate funds. The objective is to
disseminate knowledge that will help governments of all LAC
countries, and particularly finance ministries, understand
and access new climate funds and financing mechanisms. The
policy note consists of three parts: part one reviews the
global landscape of the climate change financing for
mitigation and adaptation and emerging trends, identifies
various financial instruments, and presents an overview of
the LAC's share of available finances from several
public financing sources, both bilateral and multilateral.
Part two reviews two case studies for Bolivia and El
Salvador that demonstrate how each of these countries
addresses environmental challenges through its policies,
institutional systems and involvement of the civil society.
Part three includes technical annexes, which represent a
compilation of technical information presenting main climate
change financial instruments. A list of global and
specialized climate funds of possible interest to LAC
countries appear in annex one. A complementary list of
climate finance instruments appears in annex two, in which
climate funds as well as financial tools are named,
described, and categorized according to their primary
purpose. A more detailed description of several of the
largest climate funds including when such funds were
founded, their purpose, and eligibility requirements are
presented in annex three. Annex four provides a step-by-step
description of how to apply to the largest climate funds.
Annex five lists the LAC projects that have been supported
by Global Environment Facility (GEF) by country.


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