Urban Tenure

With the expansion of cities and urban infrastructure comes a growing need to better understand the relationship between people and land in urban and peri-urban areas.

With the expansion of cities and urban infrastructure comes a growing need to better understand the relationship between people and land in urban and peri-urban areas.

Urbanization is a global phenomenon. Countries throughout the world are rapidly urbanizing, particularly in the developing world, and for the first time in human history the majority of people today live in urban areas [1]. By 2050, 66% of the world’s population is projected to live in urban areas. The most urbanized regions include Northern America (82% of the population living in urban areas in 2014), Latin America and the Caribbean (80%) and Europe (73%). In contrast, Africa and Asia remain mostly rural, but are urbanizing faster than the other regions and are projected to become 56 and 64% urban, respectively, by 2050 [2].

The causes of urbanization include natural population growth and rural-urban migration, which can result from under-employment in rural areas, poor agricultural conditions, reclassification of rural to urban land, conflicts in rural areas, and from the prospect of better economic opportunities in urban areas. The consequences of rural-urban migration include the densification of certain parts of the city, often resulting in informal settlements. Urban sprawl and the expansion of the urban footprint may also result—either through formal or informal processes.   

Urban population projections highlight the increasing demand for land, both for housing and food production, as well as for a variety of economic activities related to urban land.  However, since land is a limited resource and increasingly unavailable within cities across the world, intensified pressures on urban land can lead to a shortage of land and skyrocketing land values. To the urban poor, this means that access to land becomes increasingly difficult, be it for housing, food production, or trading. Lack of access to land can result in “informal” or unregulated land management and occupation.

Meanwhile, as competition for land intensifies, nearly 70% of land systems across the globe remain undocumented [3]. Particularly in developing countries, enormous surfaces are covered under social tenures, informal and overlapping rights. Land regularization is not a feasible option to the majority of informal dwellers due to financial, technical and judicial barriers. As a result, rapid urbanization is often associated with a decrease of tenure security, particularly for the urban poor. This can negatively impact millions of people.

In 2015, the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing as a Component of the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living acknowledged the increasing rates of forced evictions with impunity, the expansion of informal settlements (often without basic services like water, sewage, electricity or roads), the development of unaffordable rental properties, and the tenure insecurity of millions of people [4].

With security of tenure, people are more likely to invest in their families, homes, and futures [5]. When households and communities have secure tenure, they are more willing and able to engage in housing and settlement development processes. When land tenure is secure, land can be a cornerstone for economic growth and an incentive for investment, but when land rights are insecure, this can lead to conflicts, instability and the exclusion of vulnerable groups, such as women, Indigenous Peoples and the poor.

 

 

 

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Indicators

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    Media

    Latest News

    india slum
    8 August 2017
    India

    Odisha Government on Tuesday took a decision to grant land rights to the slum dwellers living in Municipal Councils and Notified Area Councils of the State and property rights to those living in Municipal Corporation areas.

    Accordingly, the State Cabinet approved promulgation of two ordinances for assigning land rights or property rights to the identified slum dwellers for redevelopment, rehabilitation and upgradation of slums.

    urbanization forest flickr
    7 August 2017
    United States of America

    “Us guys, we bust our butts. It’s dangerous work doing what we do, but I love it out here. There’s nothing like it.” So stated Tony Gale, a veteran logger from rural New York, in an interview with Huffington Post. The digital media company recently published a comprehensive piece on the intersection between suburban development and rural communities, and Gale is representative of many in America’s rural workforce who are challenged by the changing dynamics brought about by urban sprawl.

    7 August 2017
    Africa

    Land is integral to securing shelter, agriculture for food security, mobilising investments and for the sustainable management of resources. With these issues in focus, Habitat for Humanity's Solid Ground Campaign, in association with the Urban CSO Cluster of the Global Land Tool Network (GLTN) of UN-HABITAT, will be hosting a conference in Pretoria, 15-17 August.

    accra ghana road
    3 August 2017
    Ghana

    The President of Ghana Institutions of Surveyors (GhIS), Mr. Edwin Addo-Tawiah has said, it is time surveyors take strategic decisions for the development of the country, considering the United Nations Development Goal (UNDG) which has been estimated that, 60% of Africans would be living in the urban areas by 2020.

    According to him, there is therefore, the need for land professionals to equip themselves in terms of decision making in developmental projects.

    Latest Blogs

    Global
    Africa

    Property rights are a global concern that needs to be understood by all of us, write Monique Villa & Peter Rabley

    Global
    Africa

    By Chris Jochnick, President and CEO of Landesa

    The development community has experienced various “revolutions” over the years – from microfinance to women’s rights, from the green revolution to sustainable development.  Each of these awakenings has improved our understanding of the challenges we face; each has transformed the development landscape, mostly for the better.

    Latest Events

    23 August 2017 to 25 August 2017

    Location

    Curitiba, Brasil Curitiba
    Brazil
    BR
    Latin America and the Caribbean
    Brazil
    Portugal
    Spain

    Nos dias 23,24 e 25 de agosto do presente ano, levar-se-á a cabo o TERCEIRO CONGRESSO IBEROAMERICANO DE SOLO URBANO na cidade de Curitiba, Brasil, com o tema “O solo na nova agenda urbana”, organizado de maneira conjunta pelo Colégio Mexiquence AC, a Universidade Federal do Paraná, a Universidade Pontifícia Católica do Paraná e a Universidade Positivo.

    Paul Saad Flickr - Pretoria
    15 August 2017 to 17 August 2017

    Location

    Pretoria
    South Africa
    ZA
    Africa

    The GLTN’s Urban CSO Cluster of UN-Habitat and Habitat for Humanity’s Solid Ground campaign are convening a multi-stakeholder regional conference on land governance and management and kindly invite you to attend the upcoming conference titled Partnership for Action: Improving Land Governance and Management in Africa. The conference will present the opportunity for stakeholders from multiple sectors to come together to explore approaches to land governance towards inclusive and sustainable development in Africa.

    9 May 2017 to 12 May 2017

    Location

    Centro Brasileiro para Conservação da Natureza e Desenvolvimento Sustentável
    Rua Christovam Lopes de Carvalho nº27, Sala 801
    Viçosa, Minas Gerais
    Brazil
    BR
    Brazil

    Com intuito de promover conhecimentos e experiência desenvolvidas na recuperação e degradação ambiental nos diversos biomas brasileiros, o evento pretende contribuir com a difícil tarefa de restauração desses biomas.

    1 May 2017 to 31 May 2017

    Location

    Online
    United States
    US
    Global

    DESCRIPTION

    Rights to land and resources are at the center of our most pressing development issues: poverty reduction, food security, conflict, urbanization, gender equality, climate change, and resilience. Secure Land Tenure and Property Rights (LTPR) create incentives for investment, broad-based economic growth, and good stewardship of natural resources. Insecure property rights and weak land governance systems often provoke conflict and instability, which can trap communities, countries, and entire regions in a cycle of poverty.

    Debates

    23 January 2017 to 24 February 2017
    Closed
    Facilitators
    Raquel Ludermir Bernardino
    Maria Luisa Alvarado
    Latin America and the Caribbean
    Bolivia
    Colombia
    Ecuador
    Paraguay
    Peru

    In Latin American and the Caribbean region (LAC), millions of families lack access to land for shelter or live in insecure tenure under a constant threat of being evicted from their homes. Land conflicts and forced evictions are increasingly reported and a key issue in the advocacy agenda of civil society and grassroots organizations.

    6 April 2016 to 12 April 2016
    Closed
    Facilitators
    Deborah Fulton
    Global

     

    Dear all,

    Urbanization and the transformation of agriculture, food systems and rural spaces present challenges and opportunities for inclusive growth, poverty eradication, economic, environmental and social sustainability, and food security and nutrition. As a result, there is an increasing focus on rural-urban linkages and approaches which can address these issues in a holistic and integrated manner in order to fully address the challenges and maximize the opportunities.

    Partners

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 2599
    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2017

    The relationship between sustainable urban development and environmental sustainability is crucial to every strategy of urban transformation, renewal and regeneration. In particular, urban regeneration entails programmes of urban transformation that involve the rehabilitation of existing parts of a city, re-use previously built-up area and abandoned buildings, and redevelop blighted urban spaces to increase urban sustainability.

    Peer-reviewed publication
    July 2017

    One of the major consequences of expansive urban growth is the degradation and loss of productive agricultural land and agroecosystem functions. Four landscape metrics—Percentage of Land (PLAND), Mean Parcel Size (MPS), Parcel Density (PD), and Modified Simpson’s Diversity Index (MSDI)—were calculated for 1 km × 1 km cells along three 50 km-long transects that extend out from the Adelaide CBD, in order to analyze variations in landscape structures. Each transect has different land uses beyond the built-up area, and they differ in topography, soils, and rates of urban expansion.

    Peer-reviewed publication
    July 2017

    Urban expansion has become a widespread trend in developing countries. Road networks are an extremely important factor driving the expansion of urban land and require further study. To investigate the relationship between road networks and urban expansion, we selected Beijing, New York, London, and Chicago as study areas. First, we obtained urban land use vector data through image interpretation using a remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) platform and then used overlay analysis to extract information on urban expansion.

    Policy Papers & Briefs
    July 2017
    • There is an accute lack of well-located urban housing that is adequate, secure, and affordable. The global affordable housing gap is currently estimated at 330 million urban households and is forecast to grow by more than 30 percent to 440 million households, or 1.6. billion people, by 2025.
    • This paper defines three key challenges to providing adequate, secure and affordable housing in the global south: the growth of informal or substandard settlements, the overemphasis on home ownership, and inappropriate policies or laws that push the poor out of the city.
    Global Urban Lectures: Geoffrey Payne - Improving urban tenure security and property rights cover image
    Training Resources & Tools
    Multimedia
    July 2017

    Geoffrey Payne outlines five fundamental propositions that are key to his understanding of tenure issues and policy options.

    These are:

    1) That access to affordable land with adequate security of tenure and associated rights is a pre-condition for realising the goal of adequate housing and poverty reduction;

    Peer-reviewed publication
    July 2017

    Urban green spaces provide important recreational, social and psychological benefits to stressed city residents. This paper aims to understand the importance of parks for visitors. We focus on Delhi, the world’s second most populous city, drawing on 123 interviews with park visitors in four prominent city parks. Almost all respondents expressed the need for more green spaces. Visitors valued parks primarily for environmental and psychological/health benefits.