With secure land tenure, Indigenous Peoples and local communities can realize human rights, achieve economic growth, protect the environment, and maintain cultural integrity.

For centuries, Indigenous Peoples and local communities (IPLCs) have used, managed and depended on collectively-held land for food supplies, cultural and spiritual traditions, and other livelihood needs. Historically governed through customary tenure systems rooted in community norms and practices that often go back centuries, governments often consider such community land as vacant, idle, or state-owned property.  Statutory recognition and protection of indigenous and community land rights continues to be a major challenge [1].

The gap between formally recognized and customarily held and managed land is a significant source of underdevelopment, conflict, and environmental degradation [2]. Strong rights to land are vital for Indigenous Peoples and local communities. When community land rights are weak, such areas are vulnerable to land grabbing, expropriation without compensation, and encroachment by outsiders [3]. Without secure tenure rights [4], meaning rights that are enforceable and recognized by governments and others, communities face increased risk of poverty, poor health, and human rights abuse. Securing community tenure rights is not only crucial from a human rights and socio-economic development perspective, it is also necessary to mitigate climate change, foster sustainable development, and promote peacebuilding across the globe [5].

 

 

Indicators

The average score for the ten indicators of the legal security of community lands is also provided.

Measurement unit
Index (1; 4)

The average score for the ten indicators of the legal security of indigenous People lands is also provided.

Measurement unit
Index (1; 4)

This indicator asks whether national laws adopt VGGT principle 16.1 by providing compensation for formally recognized tenure rights held by Indigenous Peoples and local communities. Section 16.

Measurement unit
Index (A; C)

Customary tenure rights are (i) recognized and (ii) protected in practice measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit
Index (A; D)

Forest land designated by governments for Indigenous Peoples and local communities: Ownership of forest land under this category remains claimed by the state but some rights have been recognized by

Measurement unit
Million ha

Forest land owned by Indigenous Peoples and local communities: Forests are considered to be “owned” where communities have full legal rights to secure their claims to forests, defined in RRI’s rese

Measurement unit
Million ha

Indigenous rights to land & forest are (i) recognized and (ii) protected in practice measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit
Index (A; D)

Estimate of the percent of total Indigenous and Community Lands - independent of recognition status - as a percentage of the country's total land area

Measurement unit
Percentage

Mapping

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Estimate of the percent of total Indigenous and Community Lands - not formally recognised by the State - as a percentage of the country's total land area.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Ranking

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Estimate of the percent of total Indigenous and Community Lands - independent of recognition status - as a percentage of the country's total land area

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Media

Latest News

7 December 2017
Indonesia
  • In August, the village of Taba Padang in southwest Sumatra was recognized by the Indonesian government for practicing the best community-based forestry management this year.
  • Less than a decade ago, however, many of its residents were being arrested for planting in a nearby forest, deemed off-limits because of its protected status.
  • In 2010, newly elected village chief Yoyon embarked on a years-long process to obtain state approval to allow the farmers to manage nearly 10 square kilometers of land in the forest.
5 December 2017
Global

NAIROBI: In a major global action against climate change, two UN environmental organisations on Monday signed a pact on increased cooperation and also for mobilisation of private finance and investment for climate action that is crucial for achieving the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement goals.

5 December 2017
Argentina

The conflict in Argentina between the indigenous Mapuche community and the national government has claimed another victim: Rafael Nahuel, an indigenous 22-year-old who was killed while resisting a raid by government forces on indigenous activists in the province of Río Negro.

5 December 2017
Latin America and the Caribbean

New group could help put pressure on Brazilian government to protect rights of Indigenous Peoples

Latest Blogs

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Land Rights
Global

On Nov. 13 in Bahrain, the Inter-Agency Expert Group on the Sustainable Development Goal Indicators voted to reclassify SDG Land Indicator 1.4.2 from Tier III to Tier II status.  This is a significant win for the property rights community, and a validation that a coordinated effort from many different players can indeed make a difference.

However, the road there was not easy.

Hurricane Irma centered over the island of Barbuda.
Antigua and Barbuda

Five weeks ago ‘A land rights storm brewing in Barbuda’ was reprinted on this portal. This told the sorry tale of the Prime Minister of Antigua & Barbuda using the catastrophic damage wrecked on the island by Hurricane Irma as the excuse to get rid of the collective ownership of Barbudans of their island once and for all.

IAEG-SDGs upgrade Indicator 1.4.2 to Tier II Status!!
Global

On 12th November 2017, the 6th meeting of the Inter-agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goal Indicators (IAEG-SDGs) reached a major decision to reclassify tenure security Indicator 1.4.2 from Tier III to II in Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain. This decision marks the beginning of a global journey to monitor tenure security for all, using comparable land indicators for globally comparable data.

Why indicator 1.4.2 deserves tier II status within the Global SDGs indicators framework.
Global

Latest Events

19 June 2018 to 29 June 2018

Location

Columbia University New York , New York
United States
New York US
Global

Next Training: June 19-29, 2018
Location: Columbia University

19 February 2018 to 21 February 2018

Location

India
IN
India

India Land and Development Conference ( ILDC 2018 )
CONNECTION, INCLUSION, INNOVATION & CAPACITY TO IMPROVE LAND GOVERNANCE
Venue: India International Centre, New Delhi Dates: 19-21 Feb, 2018

Organizing committee of ILDC is very happy to announce 2nd India Land and Development Conference to continue inclusive and interdisciplinary conversations among stakeholders around land governance in India. 

watermelon.jpg
7 December 2017 to 8 December 2017

Location

Academiegebouw
Domplein 29
3512 JE Utrecht
Netherlands
NL
Global

Climate change is amongst the most prominent developmental issues today. As a result, large amounts of capital are being made available to strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity of climate-vulnerable people, particularly in the global South.

1 December 2017

Location

Indufor
740 15th St NW #900
20005 Washington , District Of Columbia
United States
District Of Columbia US
Global
In developing countries, it is almost impossible to determine fair values for rural land. That’s because traditional valuation approaches – like the comparable sales method – don’t work in thin markets, and don’t take into account environmental, social, and cultural value that communities place on their land.
 

Debates

Customary Land Recognition: Zambian Approach to Documentation and Administration
Coming soon
15 January 2018 to 6 February 2018
Facilitators
Andrew Chilombo
mattsommerville
Global
Zambia

USAID’s Tenure and Global Climate Change Program will facilitate a dialogue on experiences of documenting household and community-level customary rights in Zambia. The dialogue will bring together the perspectives of government, traditional leaders, practitioners, civil society, and academics to consider how customary land documentation can contribute to national development goals and increased service delivery in rural and peri-urban areas.

Closed
20 June 2017 to 14 July 2017
Facilitators
EverlyneNairesiae
StaceyZammit
Malcolm Childress
Global

From June 20th to July 14th, 2017, the Land Portal, in collaboration with GLTN/GLII, Land Alliance and LandAC, will co-facilitate a dialogue through which a variety of stakeholders will focus on discussions centered around measuring the perception of land tenure security in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).  

Closed
13 February 2017 to 27 February 2017
Facilitators
Natalia Scurrah
Terry Parnell
n.sorensen
Cambodia
Laos
Myanmar
Thailand
Vietnam

Discussion Report

 

From 13-27 February 2017, the Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG) project and the Land Portal co-facilitated an online dialogue on the Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region.

Background

Closed
28 November 2016 to 23 December 2016
Facilitators
Bjoern.Hoops
Nicholas Tagliarino
Marcello Demaria
Global

Land tenure changes are on the rise throughout the world as a result of increased migration from rural to urban areas, expansion of infrastructure, commercial pressures on agricultural land, extractive activities, and climate change. Shifts in land tenure arrangements are proceeding through compulsory acquisitions (i.e. expropriations) and voluntary market transactions, such large-scale land leases and concessions.

Organizations

Library

Displaying 1 - 6 of 2123
Journal Articles & Books
November 2017
Global
Africa
Latin America and the Caribbean
Asia

This paper analyzes whether national laws acknowledge indigenous peoples and other rural communities in 100 countries as owners of waters that arise within their lands. Results derive from information collected by LandMark to score the legal status of community land tenure. Findings are positive; half of all countries recognize communities as lawful possessors of water on their lands. Three quarters permit communities to manage the distribution and use of water on their lands.

Journal Articles & Books
November 2017
South-Eastern Asia
Southern Asia

This publication is the second part to the highlights of the regional workshop on “Land Rights as Human Rights: An Imperative towards the Realization of the Sustainable Development Goals” held on 24-25 November in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Reports & Research
November 2017
Global

Over the past decade, a spike in demand for agricultural land in developing countries has generated a great deal of political and media attention. While many investments bring opportunities for local communities, some have wrongfully pushed residents and workers off their lands or have caused social and environmental harm. Some development projects (e.g. agroforestry initiatives, irrigation schemes) have also encountered land conflict.

Reports & Research
November 2017
Global
India

This publication is based on a range of past studies on ICCAs conducted in several regions of the world in the last two decades, and, most recently, on 19 country level case studies. The latter were commissioned as part of a project on ICCA Recognition and Support, undertaken by the ICCA Consortium, coordinated by Kalpavriksh.

It also incorporates some key findings of a parallel project on ICCA Legislation, also undertaken by the ICCA Consortium, and coordinated by Natural Justice.

The publication intends to:

The Partnership for Action Conference: Summary of Conference Outcomes cover image
Conference Papers & Reports
November 2017
Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa

 

Reports & Research
November 2017
South Africa

The Ingonyama Trust headed by Zulu King Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu should be dissolved and the law that established it on the eve of South Africa’s liberation in 1994 should be repealed. This Act has effectively converted informal rural ownership rights to leasehold. Just days after the report was released, the Ingonyama Trust ramped up its campaign to persuade rural citizens to surrender their informal land rights to the Trust and to accept 40-year leases that could be cancelled for non-payment or other violations of the contract.