Access land-related information by indicator. Discover the list of different indicators available on the Land Book, filter the list of indicators by theme, get detailed information on each of them and download the data you need.


Displaying 71 - 80 of 471

Clear separation of institutional roles

Clear separation of institutional roles measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices. For more information please visit http://go.worldbank.org/21M7S7AZO0

CO2 emissions (kg per 2011 PPP $ of GDP)

This indicator measures carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in kilograms per dollar (expressed at the 2011 Purchasing Parity Power) of GDP. Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is naturally occurring gas fixed by photosynthesis into organic matter. A byproduct of fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, it is also emitted from land use changes and other industrial processes. It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas that affects the Earth's radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured, thus having a Global Warming Potential of 1. Burning of carbon-based fuels since the industrial revolution has rapidly increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, increasing the rate of global warming and causing anthropogenic climate change. It is also a major source of ocean acidification since it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. The addition of man-made greenhouse gases to the Atmosphere disturbs the earth's radiative balance. This is leading to an increase in the earth's surface temperature and to related effects on climate, sea level rise and world agriculture.(Source: http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=2&type=metadata&series=EN.ATM.CO2E.PP.GD.KD)

CO2 emissions (kt)

This indicator measures carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in kilotonnes. Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is naturally occurring gas fixed by photosynthesis into organic matter. A byproduct of fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, it is also emitted from land use changes and other industrial processes. It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas that affects the Earth's radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured, thus having a Global Warming Potential of 1. Burning of carbon-based fuels since the industrial revolution has rapidly increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, increasing the rate of global warming and causing anthropogenic climate change. It is also a major source of ocean acidification since it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. The addition of man-made greenhouse gases to the Atmosphere disturbs the earth's radiative balance. This is leading to an increase in the earth's surface temperature and to related effects on climate, sea level rise and world agriculture. (Source: http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=2&type=metadata&series=EN.ATM.CO2E.KT)

Coal rents (% of GDP)

This indicator measures coal rents as a share of the gross domestic product (GDP) of a given country. Coal rents are the difference between the value of both hard and soft coal production at world prices and their total costs of production. Accounting for the contribution of natural resources to economic output is important in building an analytical framework for sustainable development. In some countries earnings from natural resources, especially from fossil fuels and minerals, account for a sizable share of GDP, and much of these earnings come in the form of economic rents - revenues above the cost of extracting the resources. Natural resources give rise to economic rents because they are not produced. For produced goods and services competitive forces expand supply until economic profits are driven to zero, but natural resources in fixed supply often command returns well in excess of their cost of production. Rents from nonrenewable resources - fossil fuels and minerals - as well as rents from overharvesting of forests indicate the liquidation of a country's capital stock. When countries use such rents to support current consumption rather than to invest in new capital to replace what is being used up, they are, in effect, borrowing against their future. (Source: http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=2&type=metadata&series=NY.GDP.COAL.RT.ZS)

Collection of payments for public leases

Collection of payments for public leases measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices. For more information please visit http://go.worldbank.org/21M7S7AZO0

Compensation due to land use changes

Compensation due to land use changes measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices. For more information please visit http://go.worldbank.org/21M7S7AZO0

Compensation for economic activities associated with the land

This indicator asks whether national laws require assessors of compensation to account for the economic activites (e.g. lost profits) associated with the expropriated land. This indicator is based on Section 16.3 of the VGGTs, which provides that "States should ensure a fair valuation and prompt compensation in accordance with national law." Answering the question posed by the indicator entailed reviewing a broad range of legally binding laws, regulations, and court decisions at the national level.

Compensation for formally recognized customary tenure rights

This indicator asks whether national laws adopt VGGT principle 16.1 by providing compensation for formally recognized tenure rights held by Indigenous Peoples and local communities. Section 16. 1 provides that States should respect legitimate tenure rights by providing just compensation. Principle 9 of the VGGTs calls for States to respect and protect the legitimate tenure rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities with customary tenure. Answering the question posed by the indicator entailed reviewing a broad range of legally binding statutes, regulations, and some court decisions at the national level. For more info, see: http://www.wri.org/publication/encroaching-on-land-and-livelihoods

Compensation for improvements made on the land

This indicator asks whether national laws require assessors of compensation to account for the improvements made on the expropriated land. "Improvements" refers to the attached and unattached assets on the land (e.g. buildings, crops). This indicator is based on Section 16.3 of the VGGTs, which provides that "States should ensure a fair valuation and prompt compensation in accordance with national law." Furthermore, section 18.2 of the VGGTs provides "Policies and laws related to valuation should strive to ensure that valuation systems take into account non-market values, such as social, cultural, religious, spiritual and environmental values where applicable." Answering the question posed by the indicator entailed reviewing a broad range of legally binding laws, regulations, and court decisions at the national level.

Compensation for intangible land values (e.g. historical, cultural, spiritual values)

This indicator asks whether national laws require assessors of compensation to account for intangible land values (e.g. historical, cultural, spiritiual values) associated with the expropriated land. This indicator is based on Section 16.3 of the VGGTs, which provides that "States should ensure a fair valuation and prompt compensation in accordance with national law." Furthermore, section 18.2 of the VGGTs provides "Policies and laws related to valuation should strive to ensure that valuation systems take into account non-market values, such as social, cultural, religious, spiritual and environmental values where applicable." Answering the question posed by the indicator entailed reviewing a broad range of legally binding laws, regulations, and court decisions at the national level.