Zimbabwe

Land issues—including extreme racial disparities in land ownership, insecurity of land tenure and property rights, control over fertile land and mineral reserves, and insecurity of community land rights—have played a central role in Zimbabwe’s history which continues to this day.

Located in Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia, Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) achieved independence from colonial rule in 1980. Though rich in mineral resources, the vast majority of Zimbabweans live in poverty. By January 2009, only 6% of the population worked in the formal sector.

Since independence, the country has undergone several phases of land reform in order to address racial disparities and inequalities created by colonial rule; at independence, the vast majority of privately owned land, including an estimated 70% of the most fertile land, was held by whites who comprised just 5% of the population. Today, some of Zimbabwe’s main land issues include: land tenure insecurity, women’s land rights, community land rights; and environmental degradation.

The implementation of a 2008 power-sharing agreement between Zimbabwe’s political parties, ZANU–PF and the two formations of MDC, which identifies land as a central issue and makes a number of land-related commitments, will play a major role in the management of the country’s natural resources and will be critical to Zimbabwe’s economic recovery.

Indicators

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit
Percentage

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit
PPP$ 2011

Total funding for programmes still ongoing in January 2016 (US $).

Measurement unit
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing in January 2016

Measurement unit
Number

Mapping

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Compare countries

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

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Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Infographics

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure


Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

    Media

    Latest News

    Demolition crews destroy property during Operation Murambatsvina, Zimbabwe
    20 November 2017
    Africa
    Zimbabwe

    In June 2005, demolition crews destroyed hundreds of homes in an impoverished suburb of Mutare, under ‘Operation Murambatsvina’ (Move the Rubbish), the government of Zimbabwe’s campaign to forcibly clear ‘slums’ across the country. Many of those made homeless joined housing cooperatives to collectively purchase land, on which to rebuild their lives, only to have that land taken by Zanu-PF supporters with backing from government ministers.

    zimbabwe urban agriculture
    22 August 2017
    Zimbabwe

    White farmers who were forcibly dispossessed of their property in Zimbabwe are suing President Robert Mugabe, claiming the government owes them compensation.

    Mugabe’s government introduced a controversial land reform program in 2000 that led to squatters invading and seizing the majority of white-owned farms across the southern African country. The seizures were often violent, and resulted in the murder of multiple white farmers.

    zimbabwe agriculture
    9 August 2017
    Zimbabwe

    THE Zimbabwe Agricultural Society (ZAS) has admitted agricultural production in the country has been on a downward trend and on Tuesday announced it would introduce a new section aimed at encouraging farmers to improve their yields.

    ZAS CEO, Anxious Masuka, told reporters at a press conference in Harare they would launch the Eleven Tonne Plus Club which will celebrate the cream of Zimbabwean farmers who have excelled in maize production.

    zimbabwe mugabe land reform
    4 August 2017
    Zimbabwe

    Harare - Zimbabwean war veterans have reportedly claimed that President Robert Mugabe is improperly getting credit for the controversial land reform programme, adding that the veteran leader had "no land reform policy" during the height of the reforms.

    Thousands of white commercial farmers and their employees were displaced and left without sources of income during the fast-tracked agrarian reforms that were masterminded by Mugabe's administration in 2000.

    Latest Blog

    Sub-Saharan Africa
    Southern Africa
    Zimbabwe

    By Mary Jane Ncube, Farai Shone Mutondoro and Manase Chiweshe

    As political parties gear up for the 2018 national elections in Zimbabwe, urban land appears to be emerging as an important campaigning tool for ruling party Zanu PF. 

    Amid recent mass public protests against corruption, economic decline and an import ban on basic commodities, young people who showed loyalty to the party werepromised land.  

    The Sugar Rush in South Africa - land grabs, land rights, human rights, agriculture
    Southern Africa
    Malawi
    Mozambique
    Sub-Saharan Africa
    Swaziland
    Tanzania
    Zambia
    Zimbabwe

    By Ian Scoones, Professorial Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, and the Director of the ESRC STEPS Centre at Sussex

    The expansion of sugar production in southern Africa has been dramatic. From its early beginnings in Natal to the huge commercial estates across the region established during the colonial era, new investments are being planned. The land rush in southern Africa is often a sugar rush, with the ‘white gold’ promising riches to governments, local elites and large corporates alike.

    Zimbabwe

    By Mary Jane NcubeFarai Shone Mutondoro and Manase Chiweshe

    In Zimbabwe land is power. And when this power is abused to score political points or amass wealth illegally, the most vulnerable citizens are the hardest hit. In the traditionally patriarchal communities of Zimbabwe, these citizens are most often women.

    Organizations

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 659
    Reports & Research
    Training Resources & Tools
    June 2017
    Zimbabwe
    Africa

    Zimbabwe’s economy grew by 0.7 percent in 2016 despite the combined effect of the El Nino drought and domestic financial turmoil. The drought reduced agricultural output and increased food prices towards the end of the year, despite the government’s efforts to boost production and stabilize prices. The public provision of agricultural inputs, the creation of food-for-work programs, and the establishment of price supports for staple foods accentuated the government’s expansionary fiscal-policy stance.

    Reports & Research
    February 2017
    Kenya
    Zimbabwe
    Argentina
    India

    With the start of a commodity boom cycle in the early 2000s, many resource-rich countries reaped benefits as prices for commodities increased over the ensuing decade. Many of these countries see mining as a central element of modernising their economies, and actively promote investment in the mining and extractives sector. Indeed,between 2000 and 2012, investment spending by global oil, gas, and mining companies increased five-fold, especially in Latin American and sub-Saharan Africa.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2016
    Zimbabwe

    Declining crop and livestock production due to a degrading land resource base and changing climate among other biophysical and socio-economic constraints, is increasingly forcing rural households in Zimbabwe and other parts of Southern Africa to rely on common natural resource pools (CNRPs) to supplement their household food and income.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2016
    Zimbabwe

    This paper provides a systematic basis, hitherto missing in the current scholarship, to quantify land transfers in Zimbabwe after 1980. It uses title deed information to determine year of sale via a number of sources. The main finding of this research is that a great deal of land changed ownership during this period, which, if the government had been committed to land reform, it could have acted upon. Evidence suggests as much as 67 per cent of white‐owned land changed ownership after 1980.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2016
    France
    Bangladesh
    Nigeria
    Belize
    Mali
    Zimbabwe
    Suriname
    Congo
    Maldives
    Venezuela
    Guyana
    Philippines
    Kiribati
    Myanmar
    Portugal
    Cuba
    Bahamas
    Paraguay
    Gabon
    Canada

    L’Évaluation des ressources forestières mondiales 2015 est le fruit d’un effort collectif des pays, ayant impliqué quelque 300 correspondants nationaux, la FAO et ses partenaires. Mis en oeuvre par six partenaires dans le cadre de divers processus, le Questionnaire concerté sur les ressources forestières couvre 88 pour cent des forêts mondiales. Cette collaboration permet d’améliorer la cohérence des données tout en réduisant le fardeau des pays quant à l’établissement des rapports.

    Reports & Research
    December 2016
    Kenya
    United States of America
    Mexico
    Zambia
    Lesotho
    Zimbabwe
    Italy
    United Kingdom
    Ghana
    Nicaragua
    Bolivia
    Malawi
    Ethiopia
    Africa

    This report uses data from a two-year impact evaluation to analyse the impact of the Ethiopia Social Cash Transfer Pilot Programme (SCTPP) on household behaviour and decision-making, including agricultural production and other income-generating activities, labour supply, the accumulation of productive assets, access to credit and food security.