The South Africa country narrative was peer reviewed by Dr. Ruth Hall, Associate Professor at PLAAS Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies (University of Western Cape, South Africa).
 Ben Cousins. 2016. 'Why South Africa needs fresh ideas to make land reform a reality' available at: https://theconversation.com/why-south-africa-needs-fresh-ideas-to-make-l....
 For a range of policy responses and articles on land reform in South Africa see: http://www.larc.uct.ac.za/home-235; http://www.plaas.org.za/plaas-publications.
 See for example: https://www.iol.co.za/news/opinion/why-section-25-needs-to-be-reviewed-u... http://aidc.org.za/change-property-clause/.
 A.J. van der Walt. 1999. ‘The Constitutional Property Clause: Striking a Balance between Guarantee and Limitation’. In Property and the Constitution, edited by Janet MacLean, 109–46. Oxford and Portland, Oregon: Hart Publishing; van der Walt, A.J. 2011. Constitutional Property Law 3 ed, Cape Town: Juta; see also van der Walt, A.J. 1999 Constitutional Property Clauses: A Comparative Analysis Van der Walt, Cape Town: Juta.
 Rosalie Kingwill. 2017d. 'Land and property rights: 'title deeds as usual' won’t work'. Available at: http://www.econ3x3.org/article/land-and-property-rights-title-deeds-usua...
 https://www.property24.com/articles/leasehold-could-replace-ownership/3588; http://waterfall-estate.co.za/how-to-lease/
 Donna Hornby, Rosalie, Lauren Royston & Ben Cousins (eds). 2017. Untitled: Securing Land Tenure in Urban and Rural South Africa. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, Durban.
 The current population of South Africa is estimated by Statistics South Africa to be 56.5 million. http://ewn.co.za/2017/07/31/sa-population-rises-to-56-5-million-stats-sa.
 Donna Hornby, Rosalie Kingwill, Lauren Royston & Ben Cousins (eds). 2017. Untitled: Securing Land Tenure in Urban and Rural South Africa. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, Durban; Rosalie Kingwill.
 Hornby, Kingwill, Royston & Cousins (eds). 2017; Rosalie Kingwill. 2017b. 'An Inconvenient Truth: Land Title in Social Context — A South African Perspective' in Land, Law and Governance: African Perspectives on Land Tenure and Title, edited by Hanri Mostert, Leon CA Verstappen & Jaap Zevenbergen. Cape Town: Juta; Rosalie Kingwill. 2017d. 'Land and property rights: 'title deeds as usual' won’t work'. Available at: http://www.econ3x3.org/article/land-and-property-rights-title-deeds-usua...
 Kingwill 2017b; 2016b.
 see http://www.larc.uct.ac.za/submissions.
 http://www.customcontested.co.za/laws-and-policies/; the publication of submissions made to a government-appointed High Level Panel on the Assessment of Key Legislation is imminent. The High Level Panel (HLP) aimed to review legislation with a bearing on transformational goals of the post-apartheid state, and to assess implementation, identify gaps and impediments and propose action steps including strengthening, reviewing and/or amending identified laws by Parliament. One of the four committees was 'Land reform, restitution, redistribution and security of tenure' which generated a large body of material. See: https://pmg.org.za/call-for-comment/441/. See also n.74 below. This material was produced for government and has not yet been published or made available.
 Ibid. For more detailed commentary on the interlinkages between various pieces of legislation see: http://www.customcontested.co.za/laws-and-policies/ ; for how the laws link, see: http://www.customcontested.co.za/laws-and-policies/how-the-laws-link/.
 Rosalie Kingwill. 2017a. 'Land Rights Adjudication: Developing Principles and Processes for ESTA and Labour Tenant Rights' Holders'. Association for Rural Advancement (AFRA), Pietermaritzburg; Siyabulela Manona & Rosalie Kingwill. Forthcoming. 'Motivation for the enactment of a Land Records Act'. Memorandum prepared for the Collaboration on Alternatives for Land Policy and Law, presented to the High Level Panel of Parliament (HLP) (not publicly available yet, see n. 16 above).
 The 30% figure was the ANC government's policy position in response to the Constitutional obligations for redistribution, and was systematically used as a target since the Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development (LRAD) programme was launched in 2000/2001. See: http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/Policy/redistribution.htm ; Peter Jacobs, Edward Lahiff & Ruth Hall. 2003. 'Evaluating Land and Agrarian Reform in South Africa'. PLAAS Occasional Paper . Available at: http://www.plaas.org.za/sites/default/files/publications-pdf/ELARSA 01.pdf; see several essays critiquing various aspects of land reform in South Africa, particularly redistribution and restitution programmes, see Cousins, Ben and Walker, Cherryl. 2015. (eds), 2015. Land Divided, Land Restored. Land Reform in South Africa for the 21st Century, 250-270. Auckland Park: Jacana
 Cherryl Walker with Alex Dubb. Fact Check No 1. 'The Distribution of Land in South Africa', Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS), 2013. Available at http://www.plaas.org.za/plaas-publication/FC01.
 Walker and Dubb, Fact Check No 1, PLAAS, 2013 op cit.
 Ben Cousins. 2017. 'Land reform in South Africa is sinking. Can it be saved? Nelson Mandela Foundation Available at: https://www.nelsonmandela.org/uploads/files/Land__law_and_leaiddership_-... 8; Cousins, Ben. 2015. 'Through a glass, darkly’: Towards agrarian reform in South Africa', in Ben Cousins and Cherryl Walker, (eds), 2015. Land Divided, Land Restored. Land Reform in South Africa for the 21st Century, 250-270. Auckland Park: Jacana.
 Walker and Dubb, Fact Check No 1, PLAAS, 2013 op cit.
 Ben Cousins. 2016. op cit.; http://www.customcontested.co.za/laws-and-policies/restitution-land-righ...
 World Bank, available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS?locations=ZA
 For detailed examination of urbanisation trends see Ivan Turok. 2012. 'Urbanisation and Development in South Africa: Economic Imperatives, Spatial Distortions and Strategic Responses'. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED): http://www.delog.org/cms/upload/pdf-africa/Urbanisation_and_Development_....
 For an analysis of the complexity of rural-urban inter-linkages see: Neves, David and du Toit, Andries. 2013. Rural Livelihoods in South Africa: Complexity, Vulnerability and Differentiation. Journal of Agrarian Change, 13: 93–115. doi:10.1111/joac.12009
 Michael Aliber. 2017. 'The former Transkei and Ciskei homelands are still poor, but is there an emerging dynamism?' Availailable at: http://www.econ3x3.org/article/former-transkei-and-ciskei-homelands-are-...
 Ruth Hall & Thembela Kepe. 2017. 'Elite capture and state neglect: new evidence on South Africa’s land reform.' Review of African Political Economy. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03056244.2017.1288615 ; see also:
Ruth Hall. 2017. 'Land redistribution: some national statistics and case studies in the Eastern Cape'. Presentation to the Colloquium 'Land Ownership, Governance and Sustainability', University of Fort Hare, Hogsback Hunterstoun Centre, 25-27 October . Peter Jacobs, Edward Lahiff & Ruth Hall. 2003. 'Evaluating Land and Agrarian Reform in South Africa'. PLAAS Occasional Paper .http://www.plaas.org.za/sites/default/files/publications-pdf/ELARSA%2001...
 Hall & Kepe 2017 op cit
 Ben Cousins. 2017. 'Diagnosing South Africa's Land and Agrarian Reform'. Presentation to the Colloquium 'Land Ownership, Governance and Sustainability', University of Fort Hare, Hogsback Hunterstoun Centre, 25-27 October
 Available at: http://evaluations.dpme.gov.za/evaluations/407; http://evaluations.dpme.gov.za/evaluations/407/documents/5bc0b2e1-dff5-4...
 Ben Cousins. 2017. 'Land reform in South Africa is sinking. Can it be saved? Nelson Mandela Foundation Available at: https://www.nelsonmandela.org/uploads/files/Land__law_and_leaiddership_-... 7; https://theconversation.com/why-south-africa-needs-fresh-ideas-to-make-l...
 Twenty Year Review 1994-2004, Rural Transformation Background Paper, Commissioned by the Presidency. Available at: http://www.dpme.gov.za/publications/20%20Years%20Review/20%20Year%20Revi...
 Ben Cousins. 2017 op cit. 7
 David Neves. 2017. Reconsidering rural development: Using livelihood analysis to examine rural development in the former homelands of South Africa. PLAAS Research Report 54; http://www.plaas.org.za/sites/default/files/publications-pdf/PLAAS_Polic...
 Mike Kenyon & Mike. 2017. 'The Transkei Wild Coast: still waiting for something to happen'. Available at: http://www.econ3x3.org/article/transkei-wild-coast-still-waiting-somethi...
 In Good Company? Conversations around transparency and accountability in South Africa’s extractive sector. 2017. 2 ed. Open Society Foundation for South Africa. Available at: http://www.customcontested.co.za/bapo-ba-mogale-money-looted; Joanna Pickering & Thabiso Nyapisi. 2017. 'A community left in the dark: the case of Mapela - Struggles for transparency and accountability in South Africa’s Platinum Belt' in In Good Company? Conversations around transparency and accountability in South Africa’s extractive sector. 2 ed. Open Society Foundation for South Africa; Gavin Capps. 2016. Tribal‐Landed Property: The Value of the Chieftaincy in Contemporary Africa. Journal of Agrarian Change, 16(3), 452-477. Gavin Capps, Dunbar Moodie and R. Bush (eds). 2015. Review of African Political Economy Special Issue: White gold: new class and community struggles on the South African platinum belt, 42:146; see SWOP working papers on https://www.swop.org.za/working-papers, including Gavin Capps and S. Malindi. 2017. Dealing with the Tribe: The Politics of the Bapo/Lonmin Royalty-to-Equity Conversion. Working Paper: 8. Johannesburg: Society, Work and Development Institute (SWOP), University of the Witwatersrand; S. Mnwana, F. Mtero and M. May. 2016. Dispossessing the dispossessed? Mining and rural struggles in Mokopane, Limpopo. Working Paper: 7. Johannesburg: Society, Work and Development Institute, University of the Witwatersrand.
 See http://www.ee.co.za/article/murder-south-africa-wild-coast-escalates-con...
 See https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2017-06-16-zwanes-radical-mining... http://www.customcontested.co.za/next-mining-charter-will-revolutionary-...
 Conrad Steenkamp & Jana Uhr. 2000. 'The Makuleke Land Claim: Power Relations And Community-Based Natural Resource Management' Evaluating Eden Series Discussion Paper No.18. London: IIED. Available at: http://www.conservation-development.net/Projekte/Nachhaltigkeit/CD1/Sued...
 Mary Tomlinson. 2015/6. 'South Africa’s Housing Conundrum'. Institute of Race Relations @Liberty No 4, 2015/6 October 2015/Issue 20. Available at:
http://irr.org.za/reports-and-publications/atLiberty/files/liberty-2013-.... Urban housing statistics are difficult to aggregate. The official figure may be an overestimate given that 'new houses' may be a conversion of old housing stock from the state to occupants i.e. leasehold being converted to freehold.
 BNG Journal, op cit.
 Lauren Royston. 2002. 'Security of Tenure in South Africa: Overview of Policy and Practice' in Holding Their Ground: Secure Tenure for the Urban Poor in Developing Countries, edited by Alain Durand-Lasserve and Lauren Royston 165-81. London: Earthscan Publications; Royston, Lauren. 2014. 'Incrementally Securing Tenure. Promising Practices in Informal Settlement Upgrading in Southern Africa, World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty Washington DC; Kate Tissington. 2011. 'A Resource Guide to Housing in South Africa 1994-2010. Legislation, Policy, Programmes and Practice'. Johannesburg: Socio-Economic Research Institute of South Africa (SERI).
 BNG Journal, Department of Human Settlements, April-June 2017.
 Rosalie Kingwill. 2017a; Rosalie Kingwill. 2017c. 'Square pegs in round holes: the competing Faces of Land Title', in Hornby, Kingwill, Royston & Cousins (eds). 2017.
 Howard Consortium. Rutsch 2004. ‘The extra-legal land market: extra-legal land markets in Kwazulu-Natal.’ Durban: KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Planning and Development Commission Isandla Institute and Stephen Berrisford Consulting with Progressus Research and Development. 2007. 'Do Informal Land Markets Work for Poor People? An Assessment of three Metropolitan Cities in South Africa. Synthesis Report'. Johannesburg: Urban LandMark. Available at: http://www.urbanlandmark.org.za/downloads/Operation_of_the_market_Synthe...
 In Cape Town the NGO known as Violence Prevention for Urban Upgrading (VPUU) introduced local planning and land records systems in Monwabisi Park, Khayelitsha, and in Johannesburg, land rights specialists are advocating an approach using zoning laws and land records in Slovo Park. https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2016-04-11-upgrading-informal-se...
 Rosalie Kingwill. 2017b.
 Sindiso Mnisi Weeks. 2011. 'Securing women's property inheritance in the context of plurality: Negotiations of law and authority in Mbuzini customary courts and beyond', 2011, Acta Juridica, 140-173; Sindiso Mnisi Weeks. 2011. 'The Traditional Courts Bill: Controversy around process, substance and implications', Vol 35, March 2011, South African Crime Quarterly, 3-10; Mnisi Weeks, S. 'Beyond the Traditional Courts Bill: Regulating customary courts in line with living customary law and the Constitution', Vol 35, March 2011, South African Crime Quarterly, 31-40.
 Aninka Claassens. ‘Recent Changes in Women's Land Rights and Contested Customary Law in South Africa’. Journal of Agrarian Change, 13, 1, 2013, 71–92; Aninka Claassens & Sindiso Mnisi. 2009. ‘Rural Women Redefining Land Rights in the Context of Living Customary Law’. South African Journal of Human Rights, 25, 491–516. Ben Cousins. 2017. 'The 'Living Customary Law of Land' in Msinga, in Hornby, Kingwill, Royston & Cousins (eds). 2017. Untitled: Securing Land Tenure in Urban and Rural South Africa. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, Durban.
 Bhe & Others v Magistrate Khayelitsha & Others 2005 (1) SA 580 (CC), 2005 (1) BCLR 1); Rosalie Kingwill. 2016. “[En]gendering the Norms of Customary Inheritance in Botswana and South Africa. Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 48(2).
 Kingwill 2016; Likhapha Mbatha. 2002. “Reforming the Customary Law of Succession.” South African Journal on Human Rights 18: 259-286. Chuma Himonga. 2005. ‘The Advancement of Women's Rights in the First decaded of democracy in South Africa: the Reform of the Customary Law of Marriage and Succession’. Acta Juridica, 2005, 82-107
 Hornby, Kingwill, Royston & Cousins (eds). 2017.
 See papers prepared for the Collaboration on Alternatives for Land Policy and Law and submitted to the High Level Panel of Parliament (see n. 16 and n.74 below). Rosalie Kingwill. 2017a.
 Siyabulela Manona & Rosalie Kingwill. Forthcoming. 'Motivation for the enactment of a Land Records Act'. Memorandum prepared for the Collaboration on Alternatives for Land Policy and Law, presented to the High Level Panel of Parliament. (Not publicly available yet, see n. 16 and n.74 below).
 Parliament established a High Level Panel (HLP) in 2016 (see also n. 14 above) to investigate the impact of legislation in respect of (a) the triple challenges of poverty, unemployment and inequality; (b) the creation of, and equitable distribution of wealth; (c) land reform, restitution, redistribution and security of tenure; (d) nation building and social cohesion. The High Level Panel involved a review of legislation, assessment of implementation, identification of gaps and proposals for action with regard to existing legislation that enables the transformational goals of the developmental state, as well as laws that impede this goal. The outcome of the work are to be considered as a package of recommendations by the South African Legislative Sector. This considerable package of information is about to be made public. See also n. 16 above. This material was produced for government and has not yet been published or made available