With a large population and limited availability of land, Vietnam’s endowment of 0.3 hectare of agricultural land per person is among the lowest in the world. [1] Vietnam is historically a nation of small-scale rice farmers: the average farm size is 1,560 square meters, less than one-third that of Thailand or Cambodia. [2] Rapid economic growth in the past two decades has converted up to one million hectares of household farmland to commercial and residential use. [3] Land conversion has led to an increasing trend of land disputes [4] and is a factor contributing to widening rural-urban disparities. [5]

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.


    Latest News

    22 May 2017

    In countries like Cambodia, Vietnam and Myanmar, tens of thousands face eviction with few tools to fight back

    Residents of a village in Hanoi's outskirts took 38 officials and policemen hostage recently in protest against what they claimed was the illegal seizure of their land by a telecommunications firm owned by the military.

    The stand-off riveted the nation, and also highlighted the persistence of land disputes in a region where rapid development is pitting large commercial interests against longstanding communities.

    3 April 2017

    The Regional Center for Social Science and Sustainable Development and the Mekong Land Research Forum will run a week-long intensive summer school on land research in the Mekong Region. The purpose of the summer school is to equip early-career academic and advocacy-oriented researchers with key concepts, access to existing research outputs, and knowledge of current land issues across the region in order to strengthen individual and networked research that is geared towards secure access to land amongst the region’s rural and urban poor.

    24 March 2017
    • Only 30% of the world’s population has a legally registered title to their land.
    • As discussed at the Land and Poverty Conference 2017, secure land rights are important for reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity at the country, community, and family levels.
    • The World Bank supports countries to secure land rights for their populations, especially women, Indigenous Peoples, and other vulnerable groups.

    Latest Blog

    By Roy Prosterman

    Asia’s Tigers, the collection of booming economies that emerged in the East following World War II, are often hailed as economic miracles. There was, though, no “secret sauce” behind that sustained and broad-based economic growth. Rather, as Myanmar is poised to show, the key ingredient for a Tiger economy can be found right beneath our feet.

    Latest Events

    26 February 2017 to 28 February 2017


    Best Western Green Hill Yangon

    Over the last 30 years, the nation states in the Mekong region have taken steps to reform their land policy to facilitate the efforts to end poverty, create wealth and grow their economies. To do this most effectively in this modern age requires the leveraging of technical innovations and data.


    13 February 2017 to 27 February 2017
    Natalia Scurrah
    Terry Parnell

    From 13-27 February 2017, the Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG) project and the Land Portal co-facilitated an online dialogue on the Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region.



    Displaying 1 - 6 of 296
    September 2008

    This Decision approves the planning for the development of Viet Nam’s coastal economic zones.The aims of this Decision are to: develop coastal economic zones in order to boost overall development along Viet Nam’s coastline by paying attention to environmental protection; ensure the effective use of land, water surface and space in coastal economic zones; etc.

    August 1999

    Agricultural land is allocated to specified subjects whose main source of income is agriculture, aquaculture of the winning of salt. Article 2 defines "agricultural land". Land shall be allocated for 20 years if used for planting of "annual trees" or aquaculture and 50 years if used for planting of "perennial trees". Article 5 specifies how much land can be allocated, depending on where the land is situated. Article 15 concerns the management of public land.

    September 2001

    This Regulation provides for the implementation of various amendments made in 1998 to the Land Law (the land use right, its certification, granting, the subjects entitled to them).

    Implements: Land Law. (1993-07-14)
    Repealed by: Order No. 23/2003/L-CTN on the promulgation of Land Law No.13/2003/QH11. (2003-12-10)
    Repealed by: Directive No. 05/2004/CT-TTg on organizing the implementation of the 2003 Land Law. (2004-02-09)

    February 2008

    This Decision approves the development of Viet Nam’s survey and mapping into a basic survey branch in order to: ensure the building and supply of adequate geographical information to serve requirements of the state management of territory, land, natural resources and the environment; conduct scientific research into the earth; prevent and control natural disasters and protect the environment; etc.

    April 2008

    This Decision promulgates the Vietnam Building Code on Regional and Urban Planning and Rural Residential Planning which contains provisions for the elaboration, evaluation and approval of construction plans and for the promulgation and application of construction planning standards.The Code includes provisions for: spatial planning, which sets forth strategic orientations for the development of regional space; technical preparation planning; transport planning; water supply planning; planning on wastewater drainage and management of solid wastes and cemeteries; and planning on electricity s