Tanzania

TZA

Tanzania

Land has played a critical role in Tanzania’s development. Current land tenure frameworks, issues and conflicts in the country have historical roots dating back to the pre-colonial period. The periods of German and British rule were also formative in establishing current land sector rules and challenges, as has been the post-independence period. During the pre-colonial period, all land was owned communally and all members of the community had equal access [1]. When the Tanganyika [2] was under German Colonial rule (1891-1919), there were three types of land tenure: freehold titles created out of conveyance, leasehold granted by the emperor and customary tenure for natives. When the British took over (1919-1961), they recognized existing German laws and put in place new land laws such as the Land Ordinance of 1923. After independence, freehold titles were converted into government leases and later rights of occupancy [3].

Land in Tanzania is currently held in three forms: granted rights of occupancy (for general land), customary rights of occupancy (for village land) and reserved land (for conservation and other areas). The enactment of the Land Act and the Village Land Act in 1999 created two types of titles: customary rights of occupancy and granted rights of occupancy. These rights were given equal status, unlike during the colonial period when customary tenure was inferior [4] to other types of land rights. Several amendments to the Land Act were enacted, including a major amendment in 2004 on mortgage and land markets and a more recent amendment passed in 2017,  which includes mandates of Export Processing Zone Authorities along with those of the Tanzania Investment Centre [5] [6]. More than 8 amendments have been made to the Land Act since it became operational in 2001. Currently the government is in the process of reviewing the National Land Policy [7].

The Draft National Land Policy 2016 highlights several major land issues associated with the delivery of cost-effective and accountable land administration services, including:

  1. a lack of dedicated funding (or, limited cost recovery/revenue streams);
  2. a lack of trained staff;
  3. a lack of required mapping/geospatial information; and
  4. a lack of a coordinated strategy to share information and provide services at scale.

Second, Tanzania suffers from problems related to the limited production of and communication about reliable geospatial information. Third, Tanzania has endured cross-cutting challenges that affect the land sector, including issues related to global climate change, gender, HIV/ AIDS, and governance.

Other pervasive land issues include land use conflicts, conflicts between farmers and pastoralists, conflicts between small scale producers and large scale land-based investors, lack of strong constitutional recognition and protection of land rights [8], delays in village land use planning, and land compensation. For example, the government recently decided to acquire 1500 acres of land from villagers for the Ngorongoro conservation area, sparking protests from the villagers [9]. Also,  villagers in the Bagamoyo District are demanding compensation from Agro – Eco energy Company, even though the villagers did not succeed in court [10]. Agro- Eco Energy’s project was later reported as cancelled by the government of Tanzania due to environmental concerns [11].

 

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Indicators

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    22 August 2017
    Tanzania

     

    Thousands of pastoralists in northern Ngorongoro district made homeless as homes torched to protect wild game

    DAR ES SALAAM, Tanzania

    Simat Rotiken and his family are braving cold nights huddled under a tree after their homestead was burned down in a scheme to protect a disputed wildlife corridor.

    They were driven from their pastures by security forces in a government policy aimed at securing the Loliondo Game Controlled Area next to the Serengeti National Park.

    3 August 2017
    Tanzania
    31 July 2017
    Tanzania
    Liberia
    China
    Myanmar
    India

    The application process for the 2018 Visiting Professionals Program is now open until August 20, 2017.

    Please click the link below to apply:

    DOWNLOAD VPP APPLICATION FORM 

    Villagers in Kinywang’anga celebrate the completion of land registration efforts in their community. USAID
    11 May 2017
    Tanzania

    How two villages are working to redefine the future of land registration.

    Latest Blog

    This map draws on Chinese infrastructure project location data from AidData and forest cover loss data from Hansen et al. (2013).
    Cambodia
    China
    Tanzania

    Conservationists and environmental advocacy groups have warned that the nature, pace and scale of Chinese-funded infrastructure projects in the developing world may lead to unintended environmental consequences, especially in so-called “ecological hotspots.” Until now, there has been no systematic, large-scale evidence that confronts the causal claim that Chinese-funded development projects have

    The Sugar Rush in South Africa - land grabs, land rights, human rights, agriculture
    Southern Africa
    Malawi
    Mozambique
    Sub-Saharan Africa
    Swaziland
    Tanzania
    Zambia
    Zimbabwe

    By Ian Scoones, Professorial Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, and the Director of the ESRC STEPS Centre at Sussex

    The expansion of sugar production in southern Africa has been dramatic. From its early beginnings in Natal to the huge commercial estates across the region established during the colonial era, new investments are being planned. The land rush in southern Africa is often a sugar rush, with the ‘white gold’ promising riches to governments, local elites and large corporates alike.

    Latest Events

    10 August 2017 to 11 August 2017

    Location

    Julius Nyerere Convention Centre Dar es Salaam
    Tanzania
    TZ
    Tanzania

    The Institution of Surveyors of Tanzania (IST), The Tanzanian Institution of Valuers & Estate Surveyors (TIVEA)

    in collaboration with The Commonwealth Association of Surveying & Land Economy (CASLE)

    invite you to:- ‘An International Conference’

    31 May 2017 to 1 June 2017

    Location

    New America
    740 15th St NW #900
    20005 Washington , District Of Columbia
    United States
    District Of Columbia US
    Global
    Mozambique
    Tanzania
    South Africa
    Jamaica
    Canada
    Kyrgyzstan
    Australia

     

     

     

    24 May 2017

    Location

    Online
    United States
    US
    Tanzania

     

     

     

    Debate

    5 June 2017 to 16 June 2017
    Closed
    Facilitators
    Godfrey Massay
    Lukasz Czerwinski
    Global
    Tanzania

    From June 5-16, 2017, Landesa and the Land Portal will co-facilitate a dialogue through which a variety of stakeholders will contribute to discussion on the principles and practices of land-based investments, with a focus on the Tanzanian context. This is intended as part of the broader conversation on responsible investment in land principles, guidelines and practices that has proliferated since, at least, the 2009 food crisis and subsequent ‘land grabs’ that swept the global south

    Partners

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 774
    Can Tanzania feed itself by 2050?: Estimating cereal self-sufficiency to 2050 cover image
    Reports & Research
    May 2017

    Producing adequate food to meet global demand by 2050 is widely recognized as a major challenge, particularly for Africa south of the Sahara, including Tanzania (Godfray et al. 2010; Alexandratos and Bruinsma 2012; van Ittersum et al. 2016). Increased price volatility of major food crops (Koning et al. 2008; Lagi et al. 2011) and an abrupt surge in land area devoted to crop production in recent years (Grassini et al. 2013) reflect the powerful forces underpinning this challenge.

    Cover photo
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    May 2017

    In this communiqué, the undersigned Non-State Actors (civil society, pastoralist, research, private, farmers’ unions and other stakeholders) champion a call to action and outline recommendations on livestock policy advocacy strategies that take into consideration the unique conditions and opportunities of the livestock sector development in Tanzania

    Cover photo
    Journal Articles & Books
    May 2017

    Land-use conflict is not a new phenomenon for pastoralists  and farmers in Tanzania with murders, the killing of livestock and the loss of property as  a  consequence of  this  conflict  featuring   in  the  news  for  many years  now.  Various actors,  including civil society organisations, have tried  to  address  farmer–pastoralist conflict through  mass  education programmes, land-use planning, policy reforms and  the development of community institutions. However, these efforts have not succeeded in the conflict.

    Prindex cover image
    Reports & Research
    March 2017

    This report presents results from nationally representative surveys with 1,000 residents aged 15 and older in eight countries — Brazil, Colombia, Egypt, Greece, Indonesia, Nigeria, Peru and Tanzania — and with 3,000 residents in India. Each survey attained comprehensive coverage of both urban and rural areas of the country using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling.1 Standardized interviewer and supervisor training, as well as robust validation of data collection/data entry, help to ensure rigorous quality standards. 

    Cover photo
    Reports & Research
    March 2017

    In this communiqué, the undersigned Non-State Actors (civil society,pastoralist, research, private, farmers’ unions and other stakeholders) champion a call to action and outline recommendations on livestock policy advocacy strategies that take into consideration the unique conditions and opportunities of the livestock sector development in Tanzania.

    Cover photo
    Conference Papers & Reports
    March 2017

    Administration of land in Tanzania is more decentralized from the president to the village level. The law gives power to village councils and village assemblies to administer village land. The District authorities are given advisory and supervisory mandates over villages and represent the commissioner who takes overall administrative powers.  Despite decentralization, institutions responsible for land administration, land have continued to be cause of many conflicts for years.  Conflicts have been escalating and lead loss of lives and property.