Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen. The indicators of this dataset assess national laws against Section 16 of the VGGT standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in the VGGTs.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.



    Displaying 1 - 6 of 9

    A Profile of Living Standards in Turkmenistan

    The study reviews the living standards
    in Turkmenistan, shaped by the Soviet legacy - whose income
    levels in 1989 were below the socially acceptable minimum -;
    by the economic decline throughout the 1990s, until recent
    economic resumption; and, by current approaches, and
    government policies. In an attempt to ensure good living
    standards, the country maintained one of the highest levels
    of subsidization of basic goods: water, gas, fuel, and

    Resource information

    August 2013

    Turkmenistan : An Assessment of Leasehold-based Farm Restructuring

    Turkmenistan's unique approach to
    land reform and farm restructuring has produced a
    significant shift to individual or household-based farming,
    with more than three-quarters of the arable land leased to
    individual households or small groups. Most leaseholders
    consider this land to be rightfully theirs, and they expect
    to keep it in the future, either as private owners, or
    through extension of their leasehold. However, individual

    Resource information

    June 2013

    CIS Regional Assessment for the FAO Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land and other Natural Resources

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and its partners will hold consultations on various issues relating to the voluntary guidelines on responsible governance of tenure of land and other natural resources. The voluntary guidelines aim to provide practical guidance for State governance bodies, civil society and the private sector. The voluntary guidelines will provide a basis, which interested parties can use when developing their strategies and activities.

    Resource information

    January 1970

    Agricultural Recovery and Individual Land Tenure: Lessons from Central Asia

    One of the striking features of transition from plan to market in CIS agriculture is the

    dramatic shift from the predominance of large corporate farms (kolkhozy and sovkhozy,

    generally referred to as agricultural enterprises) to individual or family agriculture based on a

    spectrum of small farms. The individual sector, combining the traditional household plots and

    the new peasant farms that began to emerge after 1992, accounts for most of agricultural

    production and controls a large share of arable land. This is a dramatic change from the pre-

    Resource information

    January 1970