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The source for this link is the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
The study reviews the living standards
in Turkmenistan, shaped by the Soviet legacy - whose income
levels in 1989 were below the socially acceptable minimum -;
by the economic decline throughout the 1990s, until recent
economic resumption; and, by current approaches, and
government policies. In an attempt to ensure good living
standards, the country maintained one of the highest levels
of subsidization of basic goods: water, gas, fuel, and
Turkmenistan's unique approach to
land reform and farm restructuring has produced a
significant shift to individual or household-based farming,
with more than three-quarters of the arable land leased to
individual households or small groups. Most leaseholders
consider this land to be rightfully theirs, and they expect
to keep it in the future, either as private owners, or
through extension of their leasehold. However, individual
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and its partners will hold consultations on various issues relating to the voluntary guidelines on responsible governance of tenure of land and other natural resources. The voluntary guidelines aim to provide practical guidance for State governance bodies, civil society and the private sector. The voluntary guidelines will provide a basis, which interested parties can use when developing their strategies and activities.
One of the striking features of transition from plan to market in CIS agriculture is the
dramatic shift from the predominance of large corporate farms (kolkhozy and sovkhozy,
generally referred to as agricultural enterprises) to individual or family agriculture based on a
spectrum of small farms. The individual sector, combining the traditional household plots and
the new peasant farms that began to emerge after 1992, accounts for most of agricultural
production and controls a large share of arable land. This is a dramatic change from the pre-
Turkmenistan is a democratic, legal and secular state in which the government takes the form of presidential republic (Article 1). The property is inviolable. Turkmenistan approves the right to private ownership of the means of production, land and other material and intellectual values. They can also belong to the associations of citizens and the state. The law establishes objects that are exclusive property of the state. The state guarantees equal protection and creation of equal conditions for development of all forms of ownership.