Thailand

The most prosperous country in the Mekong region, Thailand also has the longest-standing land policy and practices, including an uninterrupted tradition of private land ownership. The Land Code Promulgating Act was issued in 1954 and was most recently amended in 2008. This legal framework has remained essentially stable through a succession of varying political regimes, while the status of land has changed dramatically. In 1961, Thailand had 53% forest cover; by 2006, that had shrunk to 25%. Agricultural land expanded rapidly through forest clearance, then decreased through conversion to urban or commercial uses. In recent years, agricultural land has recovered, and now 43% of the country’s total area is used for farming. Increased population, the liberalization of land markets, and the growth of agribusinesses are among the factors affecting land ownership; there is a growing number of landless or land-poor farmers.

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Indicators

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit
Percentage

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit
PPP$ 2011

Total funding for programmes still ongoing in January 2016 (US $).

Measurement unit
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing in January 2016

Measurement unit
Number

Mapping

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Compare countries

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

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Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Infographics

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure


Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

    Media

    Latest News

    25 September 2017
    Thailand

    Land rights activists gathered in protest outside Government House on Monday, demanding a solution to land conflicts that have arisen as a result of government policies.

    The People’s Movement for a Just Society (P-Move) led the demonstration to demand government action, saying they had been campaigning on this issue for four years but there had been no improvement. Many people who have been involved in land conflicts across the country joined in the protest.

    30 August 2017
    Thailand

    After decades of violent forest evictions, the Forest Department has announced it is making a U-turn to embrace the forest dwellers as partners in forest conservation. If you think this is too good to be true, you're absolutely correct.

    palm oil thailand
    9 August 2017
    Thailand

    Villagers of Klong Sai Pattana say palm oil company responsible for targeted killings and harassment of their community.

    Chai Buri District, Thailand - As he manoeuvred his pick-up truck along the dirt track leading to his village of Klong Sai Pattana one afternoon, Supot Kalasong, 42, heard a loud bang. He had been driving home after getting an oil-change in a nearby town and for a split second, he thought one of his tyres had exploded, burst by one of the sharp rocks on the path.

    2 August 2017
    Thailand

    What do you get from fighting for land rights in Thailand? You cannot ask Den Khamlae, 65, a prominent grassroots land rights activist. He mysteriously disappeared in a forest reserve near his rickety home in Chaiyaphum last year.

    Latest Blog

    Latest Events

    26 February 2017 to 28 February 2017

    Location

    Best Western Green Hill Yangon
    Myanmar
    MM
    South-Eastern Asia
    Cambodia
    Laos
    Myanmar
    Thailand
    Vietnam

    Over the last 30 years, the nation states in the Mekong region have taken steps to reform their land policy to facilitate the efforts to end poverty, create wealth and grow their economies. To do this most effectively in this modern age requires the leveraging of technical innovations and data.

    Debate

    Closed
    13 February 2017 to 27 February 2017
    Facilitators
    Natalia Scurrah
    Terry Parnell
    n.sorensen
    Cambodia
    Laos
    Myanmar
    Thailand
    Vietnam

    Discussion Report

     

    From 13-27 February 2017, the Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG) project and the Land Portal co-facilitated an online dialogue on the Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region.

    Background

    Organizations

    Library

    Displaying 31 - 36 of 487
    Journal Articles & Books
    May 2016
    Cambodia
    Indonesia
    Nepal
    Philippines
    Thailand

    By 2050, two-thirds of people worldwide will live in urban areas. Many city dwellers in the global South live in informal settlements, without access to basic services. The global Sustainable Development Goals seek to redress this inequity with an overarching aim to ‘leave no one behind’. This paper examines what organised low-income community networks are already doing to ensure no one is ‘left behind’ in urban development.

    Journal Articles & Books
    April 2016
    South Africa
    Malaysia
    Chile
    Italy
    Australia
    Brazil
    Iran
    Russia
    Thailand

    The relevance of the sustainable use, management and conservation of aquatic genetic resources (AqGR) for food and agriculture is relatively well known and documented, but there is still an urgent need to preserve and better manage existing aquatic diversity to enhance its contribution to food security, nutrition and livelihoods. Aquatic genetic resources for food and agriculture include thousands of species, which are found in the world’s oceans, seas, lakes, reservoirs, rivers, rice paddies and other wetlands, and also in aquaculture facilities in marine, brackish and fresh waters.

    Journal Articles & Books
    February 2016
    France
    United States of America
    Belize
    Mali
    China
    Indonesia
    Australia
    Canada
    Ethiopia
    Pakistan
    Niger
    Thailand
    New Zealand
    Jordan
    Japan
    South Africa
    Singapore
    Spain
    Ecuador
    Tunisia
    India

    The purpose of this paper is examine the notion of tenure in connection with water resources and to explore whether the concept of water tenure has the potential to make a useful contribution towards resolving the world’s water resources challenges. It seeks to provide answers to the following questions: (a) What is water tenure? (b) Does water tenure really exist or is water simply too different from other natural resources? (c) Could the concept of water tenure be useful in terms of the development of natural resources policies and practices?

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2015
    Thailand

    To disentangle the issue concerning which dimensions of land rights, among security, tradability and pledgeability, affect agricultural outcomes, this paper exploits a unique partial land rights entitlement programme in Thailand, which guarantees only security, allows a limited access to credit, and prohibits any land sale. Based on an instrumental variable strategy, I find that the entitlement increases (1) second rice but not major rice productivity, (2) land use intensity, and leads to changes in (3) land use pattern, (4) land-related investment, and (5) better soil quality.

    Reports & Research
    December 2015
    Cambodia
    Laos
    Myanmar
    Thailand
    Vietnam

    PUBLISHER'S ABSTRACT: The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 13 September 2007. Since then, the importance of the role that indigenous peoples play in economic, social and environmental conservation through traditional sustainable agricultural practices has been gradually recognized.

    Policy Papers & Briefs
    December 2015
    Myanmar
    Thailand

    The Bangkok-based Sino-Thai company Choern Pakard Group (CP Group), Asia's largest and most prominent agro-food/feed corporation, has led an industrial maize contract farming scheme with (ex-)poppy upland smallholders in Shan State, northern Myanmar to supply China’s chicken-feed market. Thailand, as a Middle-Income Country (MIC) and regional powerhouse, has long-tapped China’s phenomenal economic growth and undersupplied consumer demand.