Chad is the fifth largest African country, with a population of about 11 million people, 73% of them living in rural areas and 27% in urban areas. The country is rich in oil resources and in recent years it experienced an increase of revenues thanks to the oil production. However, Chad remains one of the poorest countries in Africa.

Three laws (Law Nos. 23, 24 and 25 of 1967) predominantly regulate land tenure in Chad following the principles of freehold tenure introduced during the colonial period. More recent regulations include Law No.7 of 2002, which gives more powers and rights to rural communities for the management of natural resources and Decree No. 215 2001, which provides for a National Land Observatory with the aim of resolving land related issues and develop new policies and legislation for improving the national land tenure system. The problem with these institutional regulations is that they are not widely disseminated among, which is one of the reasons why customary and Islamic laws regulates land access and use both in rural and urban areas

Access to scarce natural resources has generated fierce competition and conflict in Chad. Conflicts between ethnic groups are common, and often concern fight for control of wild plantations of gum arabic, which have been traditionally inherited and used for generations, which local sedentary groups have recently discovered. Land disputes between rural users are often settled at the local level by traditional leaders who apply customary law and use traditional conciliatory methods of dispute resolution.

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.


    Latest News

    Written by Thierry Berger and Lorenzo Cotula from IIED, this short report summarises comments and recommendations on the draft land Code in Chad (January 2014 version). In addition to an analysis of the draft Code in light of international trends, this note draws on earlier reports concerning the draft Code prepared by Tearfund partner Entente des Eglises et Missions Evangéliques au Tchad (EEMET) (2014) and by Tearfund (2015).

    Latest Blog


    Displaying 1 - 6 of 18
    Journal Articles & Books
    June 2011

    Une équipe internationale de chercheurs a identifié deux gènes qui ont un rapport avec les résistances contre la trypanosomiase. La maladie est provoquée par des parasites unicellulaires du groupe des trypanosomes, qui sont transmis par la mouche tsé-tsé, et elle occasionne des dommages estimés à 4–5 milliards de dollars US par an. Ce sont particulièrement les éleveurs de bovins vivant dans ce qui est appelé la «ceinture tsé-tsé» de l’Afrique, qui va du Sénégal à la Tanzanie et du Tchad au Zimbabwe, qui sont particulièrement touchés.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2010

    This resource is a USAID land tenure country profile that provides information on fundamental land tenure issues, including tenure types, legal frameworks, and land administration and institutions. This country profile is divided into the following sections: Summary/overview, Land, Freshwater, Trees and Forests, Minerals, and Data Sources.