In Paraguay, land is still a factor that determines the living conditions of a majority of the population. Current land tenure is characterized by a huge concentration of land being put in the hands of a small group of landowners. This unequal distribution of land is the result of a long and contentious history that has caused the dispossession and uprooting of thousands of men and women in the countryside. Meanwhile, others have managed to remain in their communities through enormous sacrifice and willpower.

The factors that caused this complex and system of land tenure are multiple. One of them is legislation regarding land ownership and access for the peasant and indigenous populations. However, it is important to mention that the current legislation has positive and negative characteristics. What aggravates the rural population’s situation is the way in which these laws are applied in practice by relevant agencies, where in certain respects they are rigorously enforced while in others the laws only exists on paper, as they are systematically violated to the detriment of peasants and indigenous people.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.


    Latest News

    6 February 2017

    Date: 4 February 2017

    Source: Radio Mundo Real

    The main conflicts in Paraguay are related to land and the territory, and peasant women are at the forefront of evictions, said Alicia Amarilla, leader of the National Coordination of Rural and Indigenous Women (CONAMURI), member of CLOC – Vía Campesina.

    10 January 2017

    Residents were attacked by police forces Monday in order to evict them in Guahory, in the department of Caaguazu.

    Responding to the urgent request of Paraguayan campesinos, who were violently evicted from their land, Paraguay's Permanent Legislative Commission held a meeting with the National Institute of Rural and Land Development, INDRT, director Justo Cardenas to try to resolve the issue.


    23 January 2017 to 24 February 2017
    Raquel Ludermir Bernardino
    Maria Luisa Alvarado

    In Latin American and the Caribbean region (LAC), millions of families lack access to land for shelter or live in insecure tenure under a constant threat of being evicted from their homes. Land conflicts and forced evictions are increasingly reported and a key issue in the advocacy agenda of civil society and grassroots organizations.

    23 October 2016 to 25 November 2016
    Alejandro Diez
    Sergio Coronado
    Juan Pablo Chumacero

    Generally, most rural land in the world has been in the hands of local peasant communities and indigenous peoples under customary land tenure systems; historically although, land ownership in rural areas, and natural resources contained in it, have been a source of tension between different actors with different ways to understand and take ownership. In this conflict of interest, usually rural and indigenous communities with collective forms of property, have lost out.



    Displaying 25 - 30 of 366
    March 2005

    This Ministerial Decree sets forth the modalities for the accurate determination and mapping of coastlines. The crossline between the surface of surface waterbodies (seas, lakes, rivers, ponds and water reservoirs) and the surface of dry land over a specified period of time shall delineate the coastline. Coastline of seas, lakes, rivers and water reservoirs can be permanent and steady; and impermanent and unsteady (average multiyear level). The coastline of the Caspian Sea shall be determined according to its average multiyear level.

    October 2003

    This Ministerial Decree establishes the modalities of compensation of losses of agricultural production due to expropriation of agricultural land for purpose not connected with agriculture and forestry offsetting investments, made by legal or natural persons to whom was re-allotted expropriated land, for land reclamation in case of damages to fertile layer of soil. Amount of compensation shall be established shall be calculated as the difference between the cost of losses and the cost of investment for land reclamation.

    January 1998

    This Act concerns the appointment of traditional leaders and local government in Zimbabwe, in particular with regard to land and water.The Act provides for the appointment of Chiefs, Headmen and Village Heads. These local officers shall have a wide range of powers in the field of local administration regarding, among other things, grazing, allocation of communal land and communal land use, irrigation and use of natural resources. The Act also provides rules relative to Village Assemblies, Ward Assemblies, Provincial Assemblies, Councils of Chiefs and Development Committees.

    July 1986

    This Act establishes the Urban Development Corporation, defines its functions and powers and provides with respect to organization and financing of the Corporation.The operations of the Corporation shall be controlled by the Urban Development Board. The Corporation shall be instrumental in the planning and coordination of development in rural and urban areas declared to be development areas for purposes of this Act. Declaration of development areas in a Forest Estate or a Parks and Wildlife Estate requires the consent of the competent Minister.

    January 1998

    This Act provides with respect to the registration and functioning of Estate Administrators and for this purpose establishes the Council of Estate Administrators and the Estate Administrators Compensation Fund.The Council is established as a body corporate and shall, among other things, regulate and control the practice of Estate Administrators, maintain the Register of Estate Administrators and administer the Estate Administrators Compensation Fund. No Estate Administrator shall operate without a practicing certificate issued by the Council.

    August 1988

    This Act makes provision with respect to Rural District Councils. The Act also concerns the declaration of districts by the President and classification of lands in Districts by the Minister for purposes of this Act.The Act makes provision for functions, powers, proceedings and organization of Rural District Councils. Rural District Councils shall have functions and powers in the fields of natural resources management, matters concerning land in a District, water, fisheries, forestry, sewerage and protection of the environment.