Philippines

PHL

Philippines

The Philippines consists of 7,107 islands covering 300,000 square kilometers (30 million hectares), including 298,170 square kilometers of land and 1,830 square kilometers of water. Land distribution is highly skewed, and much of the land is moderately or severely eroded. Despite various land reforms, the majority of rural people remain landless, and there is a swelling urban population living in informal settlements. While considerable swaths of lands have been redistributed, the most productive and fertile private agricultural lands remain with wealthy private landowners. Lack of access to land and natural resources by the majority of the population is a key cause of poverty, a driver of conflict and an obstacle to national development.

The Philippines is rich in natural resources. The country is one of the world‘s 17 mega-diversity countries, although a large number of species are threatened or endangered. Forests, however, cover no more than a quarter of the land area, less than half of the forest cover in 1917. The current annual deforestation rate is about 2.1%. Widespread logging is responsible for much of the forest loss and degradation. Additional threats come from mining operations, clearing of forests for agriculture and settlements, collection of fuelwood, and poor management by the government and tenured stakeholders. Over exploitation of forest resources and inappropriate land-use practices have disrupted the hydrological condition of watersheds, resulting in accelerated soil erosion, the silting of rivers and valuable reservoirs, increased incidence and severity of flooding, destruction of coastal mangroves, and decreasing water supply.

The Philippines has some of the most extensive water resources in the world, although water quality has been severely degraded. Pollution from human trash, commercial agricultural chemicals, animal wastes and industrial wastes has led to 50 biologically dead and dying river systems. Over-extraction of groundwater has caused water levels to decline, wells and springs to dry up, and saltwater intrusion in coastal areas. Leaching of industrial, agrochemical and animal wastes, and infiltration of subsurface discharges from septic systems and polluted urban runoffs have caused groundwater contamination.

The Philippines is one of the world‘s most highly mineralized countries. Mineral lands are mostly in upland areas which are also rich biodiversity areas. Mining often leads to deforestation and destruction of ecological systems, subsidence, sinking and subsequent displacement of communities. The spilling of mine wastes and tailings causes flooding, damages farm lands, and results in the biological death of rivers.

 

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    • Very Good Practice
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    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    philippines farmland
    10 August 2017
    Philippines

    On top of the socio-economic reform demands being pushed by the National Democratic Front, collectively dubbed as the comprehensive agreement on socio-economic reforms (CASER), is the free distribution of land for the country’s landless rural poor. During the ill-fated peace talks in Amsterdam in July, the question was raised: where will the government get the land to distribute for free to would-be agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARBs)? One of the answers: public lands.

    8 August 2017
    Philippines

    BAGUIO CITY – The Cordillera Peoples’ Alliance (CPA) will lead the tribal folk of the Cordillera Region in marking World Indigenous People’s Day on August 9, 2017 – with a vow to further assert their right to self-determination.

    “Our common plight as indigenous peoples experiencing national oppression, discrimination, development aggression and human rights violations strengthens our resolve to unite with indigenous peoples and other oppressed sectors in the Philippines, as well as our brothers and sisters in other nations,” stated CPA Chairperson Windel Bolinget.

    8 March 2017
    South-Eastern Asia
    Cambodia
    Malaysia
    Myanmar
    Philippines
    Thailand

    As the world marks International Women's Day on Wednesday, six women from different countries in Southeast Asia received recognition from advocacy group Amnesty International for their "heroism" in standing up for human rights despite the criminalization and violence they have faced.

    The group recognizes the six women, who have long fought against injustice in each respective country, as figures that "inspire many in the region and whose contributions to society should be commended; not condemned".

    8 March 2017
    Global
    Philippines
    United States of America
    Zimbabwe

    Across the wide world, women are rising up to protect the Earth, one another, and the common good

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    Displaying 1 - 6 of 543
    Reports & Research
    Training Resources & Tools
    December 2017
    Philippines
    Eastern Asia
    Oceania

    It is acknowledged that conflict over land is a major source of violence in various parts of Mindanao, particularly the prosed Bangsamoro region. Historical accounts trace the root cause of land issues and identity-based conflict to the introduction of the Regalian doctrine of land ownership by Spanish colonizers. During the American colonial regime at the turn of the 20th century, dispossession of land held by the original inhabitants of Mindanao accelerated, with an emphasis of titling lands for private ownership that clashed with the tradition of ancestral domain.

    Reports & Research
    June 2017
    Philippines
    Eastern Asia
    Oceania

    This report adds value because its inclusive approach of engaging with a broad-based group of stakeholders at the time of both analysis and engagement has served a means of building support for needed reforms. The goal was to generate ownership among Mindanawons through consultations which were guided by mostly local technical experts. For the analysis, the World Bank partnered with leading universities, think tanks, experts, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Some 90 percent of the extended team came from within Mindanao, and they contributed more than 40 background papers.

    Training Resources & Tools
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    May 2017
    Philippines
    Eastern Asia
    Oceania

    This policy note assesses the performance of existing land administration and management (LAM) system in the Philippines in creating an environment for competitive cities. It looks at the influence of LAM (including property rights) in the proper functioning of land markets in urban areas; the effectiveness of land use planning and regulations in shaping urban growth, reducing informality, and improving efficiency in use of space; and the impacts of property valuation and taxation practices in generating revenues to finance local development plans.

    Training Resources & Tools
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    May 2017
    Philippines
    Eastern Asia
    Oceania

    This policy note discusses strengthening institutions for urban and metropolitan management and service delivery and is part of a broader Philippines urbanization study. Strong institutions are critical to the effective management of cities, the delivery of efficient urban services and infrastructure, and the establishment of an enabling environment for business and job creation.

    Training Resources & Tools
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    May 2017
    Philippines
    Eastern Asia
    Oceania

    This policy note presents an analysis of and recommendations on the city competitiveness improvement and is part of a broader Philippines urbanization study. The analysis draws on the competitive city framework which includes four pillars: 1. institutions and regulations; 2. infrastructure and land; 3. skills and innovation; 4. enterprise support and finance. It analyzes factors that constrain city competiveness, the role that city governments can play, and provides policy recommendations based on both the Filipino and international good practices in promoting city competitiveness.

    Reports & Research
    Training Resources & Tools
    March 2017
    Philippines
    Eastern Asia
    Oceania

    Urbanization is a driving force for growth and poverty reduction. Globally, over 80 percent of economic activity is concentrated in cities, and cities are essential for lifting millions of people out of poverty through the opportunities that density and agglomeration can bring with jobs, services, and innovation. However, if not carefully managed and planned for, the benefits of urbanization are not realized and can result in congestion, slums, pollution, inequality and crime. City competitiveness is an important part of successful urbanization.