Land in Pakistan is highly concentrated, which is source of poverty and instability in the country. Land is considered the principal asset in the rural economy, but unequal access to land and inefficient systems of water management have contributed to land degradation, poverty and instability. In Pakistan, 63% of the total population is rural and 43% is landless and lacks access to water or an irrigation system.

The Constitution in Pakistan established that all laws must be aligned with the Qur’an. The constitution recognized the right to acquire, hold and dispose of property for every citizen. There are several formal laws governing land tenure in Pakistan, mostly concerning land transactions and registration. Customary laws differ among provinces and geographical subdivisions and are enforced by local tribunals.

Land disputes in Pakistan are prevalent in rural areas. A revenue court system resolves land conflicts related to land documentation, tenancy, land revenues and transactions; the court is also designed to provide local and rapid solutions for land conflicts. However, these entities have receive significant criticism for corruption as well as the complexity and time consuming nature of the system. 

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


Indicators Year Value Unit Dataset Source Remove

Loading data ...

Compare countries


Loading data ...


Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.


    Latest News

    pakistan infrastructure
    23 August 2017

    Investment in urban infrastructure such as new roads, public utilities or parks invariably increases real-estate prices. In Pakistan, stories of riches earned overnight due to new highways passing through agricultural lands are common.

    Flickr Pakistan forest
    2 August 2017

    LAHORE: The Punjab government has decided to lease a total of 99,077 acres of land in 187 forest lots of various sizes in four districts of South Punjab to the investors for 15 years for commercial forestry.

    This was revealed by Awais Leghari, Chairman, South Punjab Forest Company (SPFC), while addressing a press conference at the office of SPFC here Monday. He gave an overview of SPFC and its initiative to promote afforestation in South Punjab under Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode.

    27 February 2017


    Date: February 2017

    Source: Dawn

    SHRINKING riverine and inland forests have significantly reduced production and supply of wood required for soil fertility, livestock’s fodder, firewood and a growing furniture market.

    27 January 2017

    Date: 27 January 2017

    Source: Daily Times

    The South Punjab Minorities Land Rights Forum on Thursday pointed out residential and agricultural land issues, saying the minorities were forced to vacate lands where they had memories of their childhood and origin despite being the indigenous people of the land.



    Displaying 1 - 6 of 410
    Reports & Research
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    May 2017
    Southern Asia

    This paper uses unique data collected in rural Pakistan to assess the extent to which consanguinity, which is widespread in North Africa, Central and West Asia, and most parts of South Asia, is linked to child cognitive ability and nutritional status. As economic benefits of marrying cousins may lead to upward bias in estimates of the effects of consanguinity on child outcomes, prior work likely underestimates the negative impacts of consanguinity on child outcomes.

    Reports & Research
    Journal Articles & Books
    February 2017

    Expansion and development of urban areas require acquisition of land, which, in turn, often requires physical relocation of people who own or occupy this land. Land acquisition and resettlement may also be required to improve the lives of the more than 1 billion people who currently live in slums around the world, most of them in developing countries. Therefore, any effort to embark on significant, sustainable urban development needs to ensure that there are adequate processes for land acquisition and, so that resettlement does not become a constraint to much needed urban development.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2016

    Water scarcity and land degradation are emerging threats to global food production. The dry land regions of world are affected by climate change to a greater extent and facing food insecurity. The current pattern of food production has been estimated to be inadequate to meet demands of growing population and required around 38% increase to meet world`s food demands by 2025. Food insecurity in erosion hit dry land regions of Pakistan also demands development of resource-efficient cropping systems to meet the food needs of population growing.