Nepal is a country rich in geographical, ethnic and social diversity. The majority of its population is Hindu, and the country is managed by a stratified and hierarchical structure that controls access to land and natural resources. 83% of the total population in Nepal is rural and 50% of the GDP depends on agriculture.

Land in Nepal is not equally distributed, which is an underlying reason for the conflict between the government and the communist party. The constitution of 2007 gives the right to own and sell property to every citizen, calls for the elimination of feudalism and prohibits the exploitation of people. Additionally,, the Land Act of 1964 gives to local offices the collection and control of taxes, transfers state land into private land, establishes ceilings on agricultural land and put in place a Commission on Land Use Regulation to address consolidation and fragmentation of land and provide incentives for farm cooperatives. The Peace Agreement of 2006 established the creation of a Land Reform Commission and the adoption of policies to provide land to landless and disadvantaged groups.

Despite these laws and agreements, land conflicts in Nepal are common due to land access and control of natural resources,the pressure on land following the significant migration that occurred during the conflict and disputes for the partition of land. Land disputes are resolved in formal courts, which may take from one to several years. However, the process is expensive and people who cannot afford the expenses generally pursue their claims in the District Revenue Department offices or in “People’s Courts”.

Source of the narrative

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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.


    Latest News

    20 February 2017

    By: Mithilesh Yadav

    Date: 20 December 2017

    Source: My Republica



    By: Kalpana Jha
    Date: October 5th 2016
    Source: Kathmandu Post



    By: Republica
    Date: September 29th 2016
    Source: My República

    KATHMANDU, Sept 29: Experts have said that the private sector has a key role in ushering in well-managed urbanization in the country.


    By: Rina Chandran
    Date: August 11th 2016
    Source: Thomson Reuters Foundation

    KATHMANDU (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Gyalgen Lama was a third-generation tenant farmer in Nepal's Sindhupalchok district, eking out a living from growing millet on a small piece of land that he could only dream of owning.

    That is until a land rights group helped to make his dream a reality.

    Latest Blog

    Latin America and the Caribbean

    The recent World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, held this past March in Washington D.C., provided a unique opportunity to reflect on collective land tenure reforms not only from a research point of view, but also from that of governments.

    Latest Events

    23 April 2015 to 30 April 2015

    Source: IIED


    The International Institute for Environment and Development is pleased to announce the dates for the 9th annual International Conference on Community-Based Adaptation (CBA9), which will take place in Nairobi, Kenya from 23-30 April, 2015.

    The theme of the conference is 'Measuring and enhancing the effectiveness of adaptation'. The draft programme and details of how to register for the event will be published soon.



    Displaying 1 - 6 of 770
    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2002

    Amidst growing concerns about farmlands conservation, this paper examines the status of farmlands in two mountain watersheds ‘with’ and ‘without’ external intervention, located in the western hills of Nepal. Information was obtained from a household survey and group discussions conducted during April to September 1999. The severity of soil erosion from farmers' perspectives, density of landslides, soil nutrient balance and change in crop yield have been adopted as indicators of the status of the land.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2009

    Land use, land use change and forestry activities play an important role in determining whether soil is a sink or source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂). The effects of land use change on greenhouse gases and climate change are receiving greater attention in many developing countries. We simulated changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) pool over 100 years (1950-2050) under managed dense Shorea forest (DS), rainfed upland (Bari) and irrigated low land (Khet) of Pokhare Khola, a mid-hill watershed of Nepal, using the Century model.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2013

    During the 1990's community-based forest management gained momentum in Nepal. This study systematically evaluates the impacts that this had on land cover change and other associated aspects during the period 1990–2010 using repeat photography and satellite imagery in combination with interviews with community members.