Mozambique

Mozambique

After the end of the civil war, which lasted 16 years, Mozambique entered a period of national reconstruction and investment. During the war, a significant portion of the population moved to urban areas. However, the rural population nonetheless accounts for 63% of the total.

The Constitution of 2004 recognizes the state as owner of the land and it gives all Mozambicans the right to use and enjoy land as a means for the creation of wealth. It recognizes the rights to land acquired through inheritance or occupation. In addition, the 1997 Land Law protects the customary rights of communities to their traditional territories and these rights are considered equivalent to rights granted by the government. The Rural Land Law Regulations of 1998 establishes the process for the identification, acquisition, registration and transfer of land.

As the registration of land rights is not required by the Land Law, land disputes generally arise because the state or investors fail to recognize the nature of community land rights and uses. Other causes for conflicts are related to boundary disputes, inheritance and intra-family rights and land transactions. A formal court system has jurisdiction over land disputes, although the process is usually lengthy and expensive, and courts are often corrupted.  As a consequence, the majority of the population uses informal mediation and conciliation processes to resolve disputes. 

English

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Indicators

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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  • Very Good Practice
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Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen. The indicators of this dataset assess national laws against Section 16 of the VGGT standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in the VGGTs.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Media

Latest News

Land: Enhancing Governance for Economic Development (LEGEND)

DFID’s LEGEND programme announces winners of £3.65m challenge fund

The winners have been identified of a £3.65m Challenge Fund funded through DFID’s LEGEND (Land-Enhancing Governance for Economic Development) umbrella programme, to drive innovative and responsible investments in land, in particular agriculture. The fund, managed by KPMG LLP, seeks to improve the effects of land investments on communities in sub-Saharan Africa.

Mozambique's widows accused of sorcery and robbed of land

By: Ray Mwareya

Date: 5 July 2016

Source: Thomson Reuters Foundation

Although the law gives men and women equal property rights, the reality is very different in eastern Mozambique, one of the country's poorest regions.

In the Chikwidzire district of Manica province, which borders Zimbabwe, deeply patriarchal cultural traditions stipulate that a woman without sons must cede her land to relatives upon her husband's death.

Latest Blog

The Sugar Rush in South Africa - land grabs, land rights, human rights, agriculture

The sugar rush in southern Africa

By Ian Scoones, Professorial Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, and the Director of the ESRC STEPS Centre at Sussex

The expansion of sugar production in southern Africa has been dramatic. From its early beginnings in Natal to the huge commercial estates across the region established during the colonial era, new investments are being planned. The land rush in southern Africa is often a sugar rush, with the ‘white gold’ promising riches to governments, local elites and large corporates alike.

A land rights inauguration ceremony in Mozambique, by Lasse Krantz

Scaling up community land and resource rights - a new global initiative

Despite certain progress in recent years a large proportion of the world’s rural population, especially in low and middle-income countries, still does not have statutory recognized rights to the agricultural land and other natural resources they have been using for generations and on which they depend for their livelihoods. They are, therefore, vulnerable to today’s escalating demand for land for large-scale commercial investments as well as to other external claims on their landed resources.

Partners

Library

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Women’s Land Rights in Southern Africa: Consolidated Baseline Findings from Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe

Full citation: Kachika, T., "Women's Land Rights in Southern Africa: Consolidated Baseline Findings from Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe," NIZA & ACTIONAID REPORT (October 2009).

Resource information

December 2009