In the last two decades, Mongolia started a transition from a centrally planned economy to a free market economy. This change had led to ambiguous land rights, confusion over governance and increasing inequality in asset holdings, particularly for women. The agricultural sector accounts for the 23% of the national GDP, 43% of the population is rural and the 46 % of the rural population is poor.

The Constitution of 2002 established the rights of fair acquisition, possession and inheritance of property. It gives the state the right of eminent domain, prohibits ownership of land by foreign citizens and recognizes the rights of the Mongolian people to a safe and healthy environment. In addition, the Land Law of 2002 sets several provisions aiming at clarifying land rights and preserving pastures, and the Law on Mongolian Citizens’ Ownership of Land regulates the allocation of land for ownership, types and sizes of land that can be owned and defines the responsibilities of local administrations.

Disputes over land in Mongolia involve competing claims to water and pasture use, land distribution the expansion of protected areas for the inclusion of customary grazing areas, the property rights in areas of mining exploration and extraction. Disputes between individuals and the state are generally resolved by the governor of the higher level, while disputes between private individuals are settled by the local governor.

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


Indicators Year Value Unit Dataset Source Remove

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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen. The indicators of this dataset assess national laws against Section 16 of the VGGT standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in the VGGTs.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.


    Latest News

    Mokoro WOLTS Project

    Women's Land Tenure Security in Mongolia

    Just published in the Mokoro newsletter online, some initial reflections from Mokoro's WOLTS project research in Mongolia from Mokoro Research Officer and WOLTS team member Zoe Driscoll. WOLTS is a long-term multi-country strategic action research project which is initially investigating threats to women's land tenure security in pastoral communities affected by mining investments in Mongolia and Tanzania.

    Ethnic Mongolians Protest Loss of Traditional Grazing Lands Outside Banner Government

    By: Qiao Long
    Date: February 24th 2016
    Source: Radio Free Asia

    Traditional herding communities in a county-level district in China's northern region of Inner Mongolia have stepped up protests over the loss of their grasslands this week, local sources said.

    Ethnic Mongolian herders gathered in protest on Tuesday outside the offices of the Haliut township government in Inner Mongolia's Urad Middle Banner, according to local residents and a U.S.-based rights group.



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    Property Rights and Resource Governance Country Profile: Mongolia

    This resource is a USAID land tenure country profile that provides information on fundamental land tenure issues, including tenure types, legal frameworks, and land administration and institutions. This country profile is divided into the following sections: Summary/overview, Land, Freshwater, Trees and Forests, Minerals, and Data Sources.

    Resource information

    December 2010