Mongolia

MNG

Mongolia

In the last two decades, Mongolia started a transition from a centrally planned economy to a free market economy. This change had led to ambiguous land rights, confusion over governance and increasing inequality in asset holdings, particularly for women. The agricultural sector accounts for the 23% of the national GDP, 43% of the population is rural and the 46 % of the rural population is poor.

The Constitution of 2002 established the rights of fair acquisition, possession and inheritance of property. It gives the state the right of eminent domain, prohibits ownership of land by foreign citizens and recognizes the rights of the Mongolian people to a safe and healthy environment. In addition, the Land Law of 2002 sets several provisions aiming at clarifying land rights and preserving pastures, and the Law on Mongolian Citizens’ Ownership of Land regulates the allocation of land for ownership, types and sizes of land that can be owned and defines the responsibilities of local administrations.

Disputes over land in Mongolia involve competing claims to water and pasture use, land distribution the expansion of protected areas for the inclusion of customary grazing areas, the property rights in areas of mining exploration and extraction. Disputes between individuals and the state are generally resolved by the governor of the higher level, while disputes between private individuals are settled by the local governor.

Source of the narrative

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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    Mokoro WOLTS Project

    Just published in the Mokoro newsletter online, some initial reflections from Mokoro's WOLTS project research in Mongolia from Mokoro Research Officer and WOLTS team member Zoe Driscoll. WOLTS is a long-term multi-country strategic action research project which is initially investigating threats to women's land tenure security in pastoral communities affected by mining investments in Mongolia and Tanzania.

    By: Qiao Long
    Date: February 24th 2016
    Source: Radio Free Asia

    Traditional herding communities in a county-level district in China's northern region of Inner Mongolia have stepped up protests over the loss of their grasslands this week, local sources said.

    Ethnic Mongolian herders gathered in protest on Tuesday outside the offices of the Haliut township government in Inner Mongolia's Urad Middle Banner, according to local residents and a U.S.-based rights group.

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    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 463
    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2009

    The completion of this comprehensive harmonized soil information database will improve estimation of current and future land potential productivity, help identify land and water limitations, and enhance assessing risks of land degradation, particularly soil erosion. The HWSD contributes sound scientific knowledge for planning sustainable expansion of agricultural production and for guiding policies to address emerging land competition issues concerning food production, bio-energy demand and threats to biodiversity.

    Reports & Research
    December 2009

    Developments in China will have substantial impacts on forestry in the rest of the region. This wide-ranging country outlook study discusses a host of topics including prospects for China's afforestation/reforestation efforts, supply and demand for forest products and ecological services, key drivers of change, impacts of globalization, policy developments, and social objectives of forestry.

    Reports & Research
    December 2011

    Document de travail sur les régimes fonciers 20. Ce document analyse les caractéristiques des systèmes de propriété communale dans divers pays d’Asie. Les pressions actuelles du marché sur les ressources naturelles créent à la fois des défis et des opportunités pour les communautés et pour les gouvernements en vue d’utiliser et de renforcer les systèmes de propriété commune pour promouvoir la gestion durable des ressources naturelles. Des politiques et des institutions ad hoc sont nécessaires pour promouvoir la redevabilité des acteurs et la bonne gouvernance de ces ressources.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 1997

    A detailed presentation of forestry development in China covering its role in the socio-economic environment, in timber production and trade and the protection of ecosystems. Trends are identified and national plans outlined. An analysis of wood and non-wood product markets is given

    Reports & Research
    September 2016

    Supporting Implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGTs) is a programme that provides countries with a framework for best practices in tenurerelated policies, laws, regulations, strategies and practices. Its Phase 1 was implemented from October 2012 to June 2016 as a multi-donor programme overseen by a steering committee and managed by the VG-Tenure Secretariat hosted by FAO.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2004

    Ce document analyse les études de cas de projets qui font appel à une approche fondée sur les moyens d’existence durables ou des principes fondés sur des moyens d’existence durables et dans lesquels on peut mesurer les effets de la réduction de la pauvreté. Ce document n’est pas une étude comparative entre une approche fondée sur les moyens d’existence et une approche non fondée sur les moyens d’existence et en tant que tels, les développements de cas « traditionnels » n’ont pas été pris en considération.