Myanmar

MMR

Myanmar

Myanmar is in the midst of rapid economic and social change, with dramatic consequences for land tenure. Under the military regimes that ruled Myanmar since 1962, the state was the main landowner, either directly or (after 1988) via proxy companies. In the current reform process, smallholders are reclaiming their legal land rights at the same time that foreign investment is flooding the country, placing all previous land use arrangements under increasing pressure.

Myanmar is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia, with 70% of the population working in agriculture,[1] although arable land makes up a relatively low 19% of national territory.[2] Once the largest rice exporter in Asia, Myanmar experienced a drop in production during the years of military control, and agriculture is now further threatened by environmental change and an influx of land-related investment. Land use varies between the rich rice paddies of the Ayeyarwady Delta, the central Dry Zone, and mountainous areas inhabited by ethnic minorities practicing shifting cultivation (taungya). These latter areas are now the site of numerous land concessions and natural resource extraction projects, leading to new cases of displacement and conflicts.[3]

Source of the narrative

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Indicators

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
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    • Very Weak Practice
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    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    31 July 2017
    Tanzania
    Liberia
    China
    Myanmar
    India

    The application process for the 2018 Visiting Professionals Program is now open until August 20, 2017.

    Please click the link below to apply:

    DOWNLOAD VPP APPLICATION FORM 

    22 May 2017
    Cambodia
    Myanmar
    Vietnam

    In countries like Cambodia, Vietnam and Myanmar, tens of thousands face eviction with few tools to fight back

    Residents of a village in Hanoi's outskirts took 38 officials and policemen hostage recently in protest against what they claimed was the illegal seizure of their land by a telecommunications firm owned by the military.

    The stand-off riveted the nation, and also highlighted the persistence of land disputes in a region where rapid development is pitting large commercial interests against longstanding communities.

    6 April 2017
    Myanmar

     

    There are serious concerns that government reforms will further exacerbate land tenure and food insecurity for the majority of the population in Myanmar who rely on their farm fields and forests for their livelihoods.

    3 April 2017
    Cambodia
    China
    Laos
    Myanmar
    Thailand
    Vietnam

    The Regional Center for Social Science and Sustainable Development and the Mekong Land Research Forum will run a week-long intensive summer school on land research in the Mekong Region. The purpose of the summer school is to equip early-career academic and advocacy-oriented researchers with key concepts, access to existing research outputs, and knowledge of current land issues across the region in order to strengthen individual and networked research that is geared towards secure access to land amongst the region’s rural and urban poor.

    Latest Blog

    Photo CC Steve McCurry
    Ecuador
    China
    Myanmar

    I wouldn’t say Chinese investors are not trying to take social responsibility seriously, but they must understand that the meaning of responsible investment is much more than a few corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs.

    Asia
    Myanmar
    Taiwan
    Vietnam

    By Roy Prosterman

    Asia’s Tigers, the collection of booming economies that emerged in the East following World War II, are often hailed as economic miracles. There was, though, no “secret sauce” behind that sustained and broad-based economic growth. Rather, as Myanmar is poised to show, the key ingredient for a Tiger economy can be found right beneath our feet.

    Latest Events

    26 February 2017 to 28 February 2017

    Location

    Best Western Green Hill Yangon
    Myanmar
    MM
    South-Eastern Asia
    Cambodia
    Laos
    Myanmar
    Thailand
    Vietnam

    Over the last 30 years, the nation states in the Mekong region have taken steps to reform their land policy to facilitate the efforts to end poverty, create wealth and grow their economies. To do this most effectively in this modern age requires the leveraging of technical innovations and data.

    First Mekong Region Land Forum, Hanoi, 21 to 23 June 2016
    21 June 2016 to 23 June 2016

    Location

    Hanoi
    Vietnam
    VN
    Cambodia
    Laos
    Myanmar
    Vietnam

    MRLG, GIZ and IPSARD are pleased to announce that they will organize the first Mekong Region Land Forum in Hanoi, on 21st to 23rd of June

    Debate

    13 February 2017 to 27 February 2017
    Closed
    Facilitators
    Natalia Scurrah
    Terry Parnell
    n.sorensen
    Cambodia
    Laos
    Myanmar
    Thailand
    Vietnam

    From 13-27 February 2017, the Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG) project and the Land Portal co-facilitated an online dialogue on the Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region.

    Partners

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 341
    Reports & Research
    April 2017

    This dialogue provided a way for the land community to collaboratively explore challenges and opportunities related to the recognition of indigenous, ethnic minority and customary tenure rights in the Mekong region in order to:

    Reports & Research
    March 2017

    Global demand for timber, agricultural commodities, and extractives is a significant driver of deforestation worldwide. Transparent land-concessions data for these large-scale commercial activities are essential to understand drivers of forest loss, monitor environmental impacts of ongoing activities, and ensure efficient and sustainable allocation of land.

    Reports & Research
    February 2017

    This case study presents a country-wide quantitative analysis of a Parliamentary Commission established in 2012 in Myanmar to examine ‘land grab’ cases considered and to propose solutions towards releasing the land to its original owners, in most cases smallholder farming families. The study analyses the information contained in four reports released to the public, but also aims to elicit information they do not reveal.

    Reports & Research
    February 2017

    This presentation summarizes an on-going research in Myanmar, carried out by renowned agricultural specialist U San Thein and a team of experts, with the support of MRLG. This research is based on a thorough analysis of records on vacant, fallow and virgin land allotted for mainly agri-business projects between 1992 and 2016, and also an analysis of the reports of the Parliamentary Investigation Commission on land confiscation and the return of land. The study also included interview responses from key government staff in all concerned line ministries.

    Manuals & Guidelines
    February 2017

    This guidebook provides conceptual, legal and practical tools and resources to help civil society organizations guide communities through the process of documenting customary tenure at the local level. It also provides suggestions for how to build on the momentum generated by the documentation process to develop strategies and actions to defend, strengthen and promote customary rights at community, regional and national level. The guidebook was developed out of practical experience and conversations with local groups in Myanmar that have been documenting customary tenure.

    Reports & Research
    February 2017

    In October 2014, for the first time in recent history, the government of Myanmar decided to organize a public consultation to inform the development of a national policy. To support this consultation process, several organizations decided to organize civil society pre-consultation activities to listen and gather concerns from smallholder farmers to formulate relevant recommendations for the policy dialogue.