Myanmar

Myanmar

Myanmar is in the midst of rapid economic and social change, with dramatic consequences for land tenure. Under the military regimes that ruled Myanmar since 1962, the state was the main landowner, either directly or (after 1988) via proxy companies. In the current reform process, smallholders are reclaiming their legal land rights at the same time that foreign investment is flooding the country, placing all previous land use arrangements under increasing pressure.

Myanmar is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia, with 70% of the population working in agriculture,[1] although arable land makes up a relatively low 19% of national territory.[2] Once the largest rice exporter in Asia, Myanmar experienced a drop in production during the years of military control, and agriculture is now further threatened by environmental change and an influx of land-related investment. Land use varies between the rich rice paddies of the Ayeyarwady Delta, the central Dry Zone, and mountainous areas inhabited by ethnic minorities practicing shifting cultivation (taungya). These latter areas are now the site of numerous land concessions and natural resource extraction projects, leading to new cases of displacement and conflicts.[3]

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Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Indicators

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Mapping

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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  • Very Good Practice
  • Good Practice
  • Weak Practice
  • Very Weak Practice
  • Missing Value

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen. The indicators of this dataset assess national laws against Section 16 of the VGGT standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in the VGGTs.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Media

Latest News

Palm Oil Projects Destroy Local Livelihoods: Report

By: SAW YAN NAING 

Date: 12 January 2017

Source: The Irrawaddy

More than 1.8 million acres of palm oil plantations in Burma’s southern Tenasserim Division do more harm than good for local Karen villagers, causing land conflict, damaging livelihoods, destroying biodiversity, and polluting the environment, according to a new report.

Protesters Call for Resignation of Arakan State’s Regional House Speaker

RANGOON – Around 100 Sittwe residents called for the resignation of the Arakan State parliament speaker in a Tuesday protest over unresolved cases of land confiscation, rally participants told The Irrawaddy.

The land grabs in question date as far back as the early 1990s, when Burma was governed by a military junta. Seizures of land were reportedly carried out to develop an industrial ward in the area.

Amid peace and prosperity, Myanmar farmers fall prey to land seizures

By: Alisa Tang
Date: November 3rd 2016
Source: Thomson Reuters Foundation

BANGKOK (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Land conflicts in Myanmar have escalated in recent years, with military and armed groups driving people from their land, and new laws failing to protect farmers, a rights watchdog said on Thursday.

Myanmar: Land grabbing victims describe aftermath at press conference

By: Eleven
Date: September 28th 2016
Source: Eleven Myanmar

Around 200 farmers whose land was seized by private companies in 2009 held a press conference in Taungoo, Bago Region, on September 27, where they were accompanied by the leadership of the No 2 Brigade of the Karen National Union.

At the conference, they farmers described the seizing of their lands in Taungoo and in Thandaunggyi, Kayin State, by Kaung Myanmar Aung Co, Shwe Swan In Co, Ar Nan Dar Co and other companies in 2009.

Latest Blog

Fostering Land Rights in the Greater Mekong through Linked Open Data

By Laura Meggiolaro, Land Portal Coordinator

As part of its localization strategy, the Land Portal is taking a collaborative approach to partner with existing networks and transform their land-related information into Linked Open Data. In the Greater Mekong, the Land Portal is working with a range of partners who are committed to the common goal of making information accessible, open, and usable by everyone.

 

Latest Events

Enhancing Open Access to Knowledge, Information & Data in the Mekong: Open Data Festival and Regional Capacity-building Workshop

Sunday, February 26, 2017 to Tuesday, February 28, 2017

Location

Best Western Green Hill Yangon
Myanmar
MM

Over the last 30 years, the nation states in the Mekong region have taken steps to reform their land policy to facilitate the efforts to end poverty, create wealth and grow their economies. To do this most effectively in this modern age requires the leveraging of technical innovations and data.

Debate

Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region: a Dialogue

Monday, February 13, 2017 to Friday, February 24, 2017
Facilitators
Natalia Scurrah
Terry Parnell
n.sorensen

From 13-24 February 2017, the Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG) project and the Land Portal will co-facilitate an online dialogue on the Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region.

Background

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Partners

Library

Displaying 1 - 6 of 136

Genealogies of the Political Forest and Customary Rights in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand

ABSTRACTED FROM INTRODUCTION: How have national and state governments the world over come to “own” huge expanses of territory under the rubric of “national forest,” “national parks”, or “wastelands”? The two contradictory statements in the above epigraph illustrate that not all colonial administrators agreed that forests should be taken away from local people and “protected” by the state. The assumption of state authority over forests is based on a relatively recent convergence of historical circumstances.

Resource information

December 2001

Qualitative Social and Economic Monitoring: Round Four Report

ABSTRACTED FROM EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The Qualitative Social and Economic Monitoring of Livelihoods in Myanmar (QSEM) research program provides a descriptive picture of rural life in Myanmar.

Resource information

December 2014

Land-Taking Disputes in East Asia: A Comparative Analysis and Implications for Vietnam

ABSTRACTED FROM INTRODUCTION: Many of the economic, demographic, and social changes animating land disputes in Vietnam are also sweeping across other countries in East Asia. The aim of this Report is to provide comparative insights into land-taking disputes in three East Asian countries—China, Indonesia, and Cambodia—that are relevant to Vietnamese conditions. It is not the intention of this Report to provide a comprehensive account of land-taking disputes, but rather to identify trends in dispute resolution.

Resource information

December 2014

Exploring the Trade Patterns and Developmental Implications of Land Concessions: The Case of Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand

ABSTRACTED FROM EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: This report deals with land concessions in Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Thailand – a much contended topic which leads discussants from issues such as land ownership and utilization to social structures, human rights and beyond. Overall, this report aims to examine changes in relative competitiveness in selected tradable commodities of Thailand and whether they are impacted through increases of land concession in selected countries in the subregion.

Resource information

December 2014

Shifting cultivation, livelihood and food security

PUBLISHER'S ABSTRACT: The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 13 September 2007. Since then, the importance of the role that indigenous peoples play in economic, social and environmental conservation through traditional sustainable agricultural practices has been gradually recognized.

Resource information

December 2015

Myanmar: Land Tenure Issues and the Impact on Rural Development

ABSTRACTED FROM THE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Myanmar’s agricultural sector has for long suffered due to multiplicity of laws and regulations, deficient and degraded infrastructure, poor policies and planning, a chronic lack of credit, and an absence of tenure security for cultivators. These woes negate Myanmar’s bountiful natural endowments and immense agricultural potential, pushing its rural populace towards dire poverty. This review hopes to contribute to the ongoing debate on land issues in Myanmar.

Resource information

December 2015