Myanmar

Myanmar is in the midst of rapid economic and social change, with dramatic consequences for land tenure. Under the military regimes that ruled Myanmar since 1962, the state was the main landowner, either directly or (after 1988) via proxy companies. In the current reform process, smallholders are reclaiming their legal land rights at the same time that foreign investment is flooding the country, placing all previous land use arrangements under increasing pressure.



Myanmar is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia, with 70% of the population working in agriculture,[1] although arable land makes up a relatively low 19% of national territory.[2] Once the largest rice exporter in Asia, Myanmar experienced a drop in production during the years of military control, and agriculture is now further threatened by environmental change and an influx of land-related investment. Land use varies between the rich rice paddies of the Ayeyarwady Delta, the central Dry Zone, and mountainous areas inhabited by ethnic minorities practicing shifting cultivation (taungya). These latter areas are now the site of numerous land concessions and natural resource extraction projects, leading to new cases of displacement and conflicts.[3]

Indicators

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit
Percentage

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit
PPP$ 2011

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Total funding for programmes still ongoing in January 2016 (US $).

Measurement unit
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing in January 2016

Measurement unit
Number

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Mapping

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Compare countries

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Infographics

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT)


Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Media

Latest News

6 November 2017
Myanmar

A Myanmar land rights activist who challenged illegal land grabs in northern Shan State was beaten to death this week by a mob of some 20 people, a fellow unionist told RFA’s Myanmar Service on Thursday.

Htay Aung, a member of the National Farmer’s Union was attacked by a mob on Wednesday in Iwine Parhe Village of Naungcho Township, northeast of the city of Mandalay and later died at Mandalay Hospital.

Naw Ohn Hla, chairwoman of the National Farmers Union, described to RFA the events leading up to the attack, for which three people have been arrested.

 

31 July 2017
Tanzania
Liberia
China
Myanmar
India

The application process for the 2018 Visiting Professionals Program is now open until August 20, 2017.

Please click the link below to apply:

DOWNLOAD VPP APPLICATION FORM 

22 May 2017
Cambodia
Myanmar
Vietnam

In countries like Cambodia, Vietnam and Myanmar, tens of thousands face eviction with few tools to fight back

Residents of a village in Hanoi's outskirts took 38 officials and policemen hostage recently in protest against what they claimed was the illegal seizure of their land by a telecommunications firm owned by the military.

The stand-off riveted the nation, and also highlighted the persistence of land disputes in a region where rapid development is pitting large commercial interests against longstanding communities.

6 April 2017
Myanmar

 

There are serious concerns that government reforms will further exacerbate land tenure and food insecurity for the majority of the population in Myanmar who rely on their farm fields and forests for their livelihoods.

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I wouldn’t say Chinese investors are not trying to take social responsibility seriously, but they must understand that the meaning of responsible investment is much more than a few corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs.

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Asia’s Tigers, the collection of booming economies that emerged in the East following World War II, are often hailed as economic miracles. There was, though, no “secret sauce” behind that sustained and broad-based economic growth. Rather, as Myanmar is poised to show, the key ingredient for a Tiger economy can be found right beneath our feet.

Latest Events

26 February 2017 to 28 February 2017

Location

Best Western Green Hill Yangon
Myanmar
MM
South-Eastern Asia
Cambodia
Laos
Myanmar
Thailand
Vietnam

Over the last 30 years, the nation states in the Mekong region have taken steps to reform their land policy to facilitate the efforts to end poverty, create wealth and grow their economies. To do this most effectively in this modern age requires the leveraging of technical innovations and data.

First Mekong Region Land Forum, Hanoi, 21 to 23 June 2016
21 June 2016 to 23 June 2016

Location

Hanoi
Vietnam
VN
Cambodia
Laos
Myanmar
Vietnam

MRLG, GIZ and IPSARD are pleased to announce that they will organize the first Mekong Region Land Forum in Hanoi, on 21st to 23rd of June

Debate

Closed
13 February 2017 to 27 February 2017
Facilitators
Natalia Scurrah
Terry Parnell
n.sorensen
Cambodia
Laos
Myanmar
Thailand
Vietnam

Discussion Report

 

From 13-27 February 2017, the Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG) project and the Land Portal co-facilitated an online dialogue on the Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region.

Background

Organizations

Library

Displaying 1 - 6 of 391
Policy Papers & Briefs
December 2017
Cambodia
Myanmar
Thailand
Vietnam

A discussion paper on civil society's participation in land policy-making, focused on the pre-consultation phase of Myanmar's National Land Use Policy. Written by Eben Forbes, with research assistance from Dr. Nu Nu Khin and
Yadana Than Htaik, and published by Land Core Group, Loka Ahlinn and Mekong Region Land Governance in February 2017.

Reports & Research
December 2017
Myanmar

This study presents a country-wide quantitative analysis of the Parliamentary Land Investigation Commission reports that were released to the public. The aim is not just to analyze the information contained in the reports, but also to elicit information they do not reveal.

Conference Papers & Reports
December 2017
Myanmar

This presentation summarizes an on-going research in Myanmar, carried out by renowned agricultural specialist U San Thein and a team of experts, with the support of MRLG. This research is based on a thorough analysis of records on vacant, fallow and virgin land allotted for mainly agro-business projects between 1992 and 2016, and also an analysis of the reports of the Parliamentary Investigation Commission on land confiscation and the return of land. The study also included interview responses from key government staff in all concerned line ministries.

Conference Papers & Reports
December 2017
Cambodia
Myanmar
Vietnam

The Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG) project and the Forestry Department of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MONREC) co-hosted the “Mekong Region Customary Tenure Workshop” on 7-9 March 2017 in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. This report outlines the main findings of the workshop, illustrated by some statements and case studies as presented by participants.

Journal Articles & Books
December 2017
Myanmar

Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG)'s first edition guidebook to customary tenure in Myanmar provides conceptual, legal and practical tools and resources to help civil society organizations guide communities through the process of documenting customary tenure at the local level. Written by Celine Allaverdian, Julia Fogerite, Natalia Scurrah, Si Thu Than Htike in cooperation with the Learning and Alliance partners, including Farmers and Landworkers

Institutional & promotional materials
December 2017
Cambodia
Myanmar
Thailand
Vietnam

Summary report of Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG)'s online dialogue on 'Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region' held in 2017, containing justification for the dialogue, key take-aways, next steps and recommended resources, published by MRLG in 2017.