Mexico is an upper-middle-income country whose economy has grown steadily but much more slowly than that of other emerging-market countries. Mexico was hard hit by the global economic crisis because of its dependence on oil exports, trade with and remittances from the United States. Mexico‘s GDP actually fell by 6.5% in 2009, but it is expected to rebound and resume a steady but slow rate of growth.

Many of the benefits from Mexico‘s economic growth have been unequally distributed. According to Mexico‘s National Council on Evaluation of Social Development Policy, nearly half of the population lives below the national poverty line, and many of the poor live in extreme poverty. Over 60% of Mexico‘s extremely poor people reside in rural areas, and most are dependent upon subsistence agriculture. By international standards, agricultural productivity in Mexico is low. Agricultural growth has largely been concentrated in the commercial farming sector, and the rural poor have generally not experienced improvements in agricultural productivity.

Following legislation adopted in 1992, the fundamental transformation of Mexico‘s land regime, which allowed privatization and market transfers of ejidal land rights, is now largely completed. Follow-through is needed to: ensure an up-to-date and reliable land certification and registration process; increase support for women‘s land rights; increase access to credit; and improve the functioning of land markets.

Mexico‘s development is constrained by numerous environmental challenges, many pertaining to water and forest resources. The northern Mexican states are intensely water-stressed, and there is increasing contamination of both surface and underground water. Deforestation in Mexico is contributing to soil erosion and desertification. Mexico must improve its water and forest management systems to avoid limiting its potential for further growth.

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


Indicators Year Value Unit Dataset Source Remove

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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.


    Latest News

    21 August 2017


    Pressure to sell their homes to the government has divided families, friends and neighbors, fueling distrust and the stigmatization of those who do sell

    TEMACAPULÍN, Mexico, Aug 22 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Abigail Agredano fears her 96-year-old mother would not survive being uprooted from their hometown in the highlands of western Mexico, where its 400 mostly elderly residents are battling a  government plan to dam the nearby Río Verde.

    16 June 2017



    On June 2, Guatemalan police and military carried out the eviction of Q’eqchi Maya residents of the community of Laguna Larga in the Laguna de Tigre region of the country. Days later, the refugees from the eviction arrived in the Mexican state of Campeche.

    The refugees formed a camp five kilometers from the border with Guatemala. The situation has been called a humanitarian emergency by migration activists in Mexico and Guatemala.

    6 June 2017

    Guatemalan families face a violent eviction as they fled violence in their own homes.

    At least 120 campesino families from Guatemala have installed a makeshift camp at the border between the Central American and Mexico as they fear a violent eviction from the army.

    21 May 2017


    The Indigenous community has demanded that authorities investigate the killing.

    An Indigenous community leader in Mexico has been assassinated alongside his brother, Mexico’s La Jornada newspaper, as the country’s human rights situation continues to spark national and international alarm just days after the murder of a renowned veteran journalist.

    Latest Blog


    By Julia Christian, Forest Governance Campaigner for FERN

    Michoacán’s indigenous communities’ greatest resource is their forests. And they defend them with their lives.



    Displaying 1 - 6 of 509
    Reports & Research
    December 2017

    A nivel mundial, ocho hombres poseen la misma riqueza que la mitad más pobre del planeta. En México, cuatro millonarios(as) tienen tanta riqueza como el 50% más pobre de la población.

    Reports & Research
    March 2017
    Democratic Republic of the Congo
    Papua New Guinea

    Global demand for timber, agricultural commodities, and extractives is a significant driver of deforestation worldwide. Transparent land-concessions data for these large-scale commercial activities are essential to understand drivers of forest loss, monitor environmental impacts of ongoing activities, and ensure efficient and sustainable allocation of land.

    January 2017
    Central America

    Dentro del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo en la Meta México Incluyente, se establece como una de sus líneas de acción propiciar la modernización de catastros y de registros públicos de la propiedad, así como la incorporación y regularización de propiedades no registradas.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2016

    Co‐management (Co‐M), defined as the sharing of management tasks and responsibilities between governments and local users, is emerging as a powerful institutional arrangement to redress fisheries paradigm failures, yet long‐term assessments of its performance are lacking. A comparative analysis of five small‐scale Latin American shellfisheries was conducted to identify factors suggesting success and failure.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2016

    Relationships between seasonal climate, land cover and surface energy exchange in tropical montane cloud forest environments are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the seasonality of flux partitioning in lower montane cloud forest (LMCF), shaded coffee (CO) and sugarcane (SU) in central Veracruz, Mexico, as well as to evaluate the changes in surface energy exchange associated with the conversion of LMCF to CO or SU.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2016

    Cloud forest streams are diverse ecosystems that provide valuable services (i.e., drinking water), but are threatened by anthropogenic activities on the watershed. We assessed the relationships between forest cover in the catchment, riparian vegetation, water chemistry, channel geomorphology, and the diversity of aquatic insects (taxonomic and functional diversity) in streams running through cloud forest in the upper part of La Antigua watershed, Mexico.