Cambodia

KHM

Cambodia

Land lies at the center of debates about Cambodia’s socio-economic development. For farmers in the fertile lowlands, private land ownership rights have enabled recovery of their livelihoods after decades of conflict. Meanwhile, the resource-rich uplands and border areas have been the site of large-scale land acquisitions for cash crop production and extractive industries.[1] The resulting displacement and land disputes have spread to urban and lowland areas, resulting in one of the highest rates of land inequality in Asia.[2]

Prior to the French colonial time, all land in Cambodia belonged to the King.[3] The notion of land ownership was introduced under the French Protectorate and was maintained in the post-independence era[4] until the abolition of private property by the Khmer Rouge. The Paris Peace Agreement in 1991 ended Vietnamese occupation and established a market economy, leading to the restoration of private land ownership in the 1993 Constitution.[5]      
Agriculture is the main occupation for over 70 percent of Cambodians. Rice production relies on the availability of arable land and irrigation systems.[6] In addition to local market demands, the government has set a rice export target of 1 million tons per year.[7] Achieving this target would require an expansion of cultivated land and nearby water sources, a serious challenge in present conditions of drought.[8]

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Indicators

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    22 May 2017

    In countries like Cambodia, Vietnam and Myanmar, tens of thousands face eviction with few tools to fight back

    Residents of a village in Hanoi's outskirts took 38 officials and policemen hostage recently in protest against what they claimed was the illegal seizure of their land by a telecommunications firm owned by the military.

    The stand-off riveted the nation, and also highlighted the persistence of land disputes in a region where rapid development is pitting large commercial interests against longstanding communities.

    3 April 2017

    The Regional Center for Social Science and Sustainable Development and the Mekong Land Research Forum will run a week-long intensive summer school on land research in the Mekong Region. The purpose of the summer school is to equip early-career academic and advocacy-oriented researchers with key concepts, access to existing research outputs, and knowledge of current land issues across the region in order to strengthen individual and networked research that is geared towards secure access to land amongst the region’s rural and urban poor.

    8 March 2017

    As the world marks International Women's Day on Wednesday, six women from different countries in Southeast Asia received recognition from advocacy group Amnesty International for their "heroism" in standing up for human rights despite the criminalization and violence they have faced.

    The group recognizes the six women, who have long fought against injustice in each respective country, as figures that "inspire many in the region and whose contributions to society should be commended; not condemned".

    Latest Blog

    This map draws on Chinese infrastructure project location data from AidData and forest cover loss data from Hansen et al. (2013).

    Conservationists and environmental advocacy groups have warned that the nature, pace and scale of Chinese-funded infrastructure projects in the developing world may lead to unintended environmental consequences, especially in so-called “ecological hotspots.” Until now, there has been no systematic, large-scale evidence that confronts the causal claim that Chinese-funded development projects have

    On 15th September the International Criminal Court broadened its process for selecting and prioritising cases to include land grabbing and environmental destruction. The decision presents an opportunity to curb the deforestation and rights abuses driven by illegally-issued agricultural concessions in Cambodia, likely to be the court’s first credible case. It also has important implications for other countries suffering from the worst excesses of illegal deforestation. Neil Loughlin and Tom Johnson report.

    Via: Global Witness

    By: Megan Maccines

    At last month’s International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC) in Malaysia, I co-hosted a panel on land grabbing and corruption with Transparency International. This global annual event gathers together governments, civil society, enforcement agencies, journalists and others to discuss ways of tackling corruption. This year’s IACC focused on ending impunity – a problem which has helped make land grabbing prolific and very hard to tackle.

    Latest Events

    26 February 2017 to 28 February 2017

    Location

    Best Western Green Hill Yangon
    Myanmar
    MM

    Over the last 30 years, the nation states in the Mekong region have taken steps to reform their land policy to facilitate the efforts to end poverty, create wealth and grow their economies. To do this most effectively in this modern age requires the leveraging of technical innovations and data.

    Debate

    Closed
    13 February 2017 to 27 February 2017
    Facilitators
    Natalia Scurrah
    Terry Parnell
    n.sorensen

    From 13-27 February 2017, the Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG) project and the Land Portal co-facilitated an online dialogue on the Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region.

    Partners

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 1104
    Legislation
    February 1971

    This Law provides for the conservation of wetlands and their flora and fauna, especially waterfowl, by combining far-sighted national policies with coordinated international action. Wetlands are areas of marsh, fen or water, whether natural or artificial, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt; waterfowl are birds ecologically dependent on wetlands.

    National Policies
    January 2009

    The Vision of the present Land Policy in Cambodia is to administer, manage, use and distribute land in equitable, transparent, efficient and sustainable manner in order to contribute to achieving national goals of poverty alleviation, ensuring food security, national resources and environmental protection, national defence and socio-economic development in the context of market economy.

    Other
    May 2014

    With a view to contribute to the social and economic development of the Socialist Republic of Cameroon, Germany enables Cameroon to receive financial contributions from the German Development Bank for, inter alia, the following projects: 1) Development of the rural sector; 2) Sustainable management of resources; 3) Climate protection REDD (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation).

    National Policies
    January 2015

    In order to modernize Cambodia’s agriculture by increasing value added in the sector and promoting agricultural value chain responsiveness to market demand and regional and global competition, the royal government of Cambodia has elaborated the present agricultural extension policy in 2015.

    National Policies
    January 2015

    In this fifth mandate, the Royal Government of Cambodia promulgated the “Rectangular Strategy Phase-III” and “National Strategic Development Plan 2014-2018” and still considers the agricultural sector as the priority sector by clearly identifying that the enhancement of agricultural productivity, diversification and commercialization, the land reforming, the sustainable management of natural resources, notably forestry and fisheries resources, are the fundamental areas to accelerate the economic growth and poverty reduction of the Cambodian population.