KHM

Cambodia

Cambodia

English

Land lies at the center of debates about Cambodia’s socio-economic development. For farmers in the fertile lowlands, private land ownership rights have enabled recovery of their livelihoods after decades of conflict. Meanwhile, the resource-rich uplands and border areas have been the site of large-scale land acquisitions for cash crop production and extractive industries.[1] The resulting displacement and land disputes have spread to urban and lowland areas, resulting in one of the highest rates of land inequality in Asia.[2]

Prior to the French colonial time, all land in Cambodia belonged to the King.[3] The notion of land ownership was introduced under the French Protectorate and was maintained in the post-independence era[4] until the abolition of private property by the Khmer Rouge. The Paris Peace Agreement in 1991 ended Vietnamese occupation and established a market economy, leading to the restoration of private land ownership in the 1993 Constitution.[5]      
Agriculture is the main occupation for over 70 percent of Cambodians. Rice production relies on the availability of arable land and irrigation systems.[6] In addition to local market demands, the government has set a rice export target of 1 million tons per year.[7] Achieving this target would require an expansion of cultivated land and nearby water sources, a serious challenge in present conditions of drought.[8]

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Indicators

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen. The indicators of this dataset assess national laws against Section 16 of the VGGT standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in the VGGTs.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    Six Southeast Asian women recognized for advocating for human rights

    Wednesday, March 8, 2017

    As the world marks International Women's Day on Wednesday, six women from different countries in Southeast Asia received recognition from advocacy group Amnesty International for their "heroism" in standing up for human rights despite the criminalization and violence they have faced.

    The group recognizes the six women, who have long fought against injustice in each respective country, as figures that "inspire many in the region and whose contributions to society should be commended; not condemned".

    Government Ditches Hydropower Dam for More Coal Power

    Monday, February 20, 2017

    By:KHUON NARIM AND ZSOMBOR PETER

    Date: 20 February 2017

    Source: The Cambodia Daily

    The government has indefinitely put off plans for a hydropower dam in Koh Kong province’s Areng valley in favor of expanding an existing coal-fired power plant, though conservationists worry that a planned transmission line through the ecologically sensitive valley could still inflict heavy damage.

    Latest Blog

    This map draws on Chinese infrastructure project location data from AidData and forest cover loss data from Hansen et al. (2013).

    AIDDATA Published Geocoded Dataset on Chinese Financing in Ecological Hotspots

    Conservationists and environmental advocacy groups have warned that the nature, pace and scale of Chinese-funded infrastructure projects in the developing world may lead to unintended environmental consequences, especially in so-called “ecological hotspots.” Until now, there has been no systematic, large-scale evidence that confronts the causal claim that Chinese-funded development projects have

    Land grabs and the International Criminal Court: will Cambodia’s kleptocrats finally face justice?

    On 15th September the International Criminal Court broadened its process for selecting and prioritising cases to include land grabbing and environmental destruction. The decision presents an opportunity to curb the deforestation and rights abuses driven by illegally-issued agricultural concessions in Cambodia, likely to be the court’s first credible case. It also has important implications for other countries suffering from the worst excesses of illegal deforestation. Neil Loughlin and Tom Johnson report.

    Blog: PUSHING LAND GRABS UP THE ANTI-CORRUPTION AGENDA

    Via: Global Witness

    By: Megan Maccines

    At last month’s International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC) in Malaysia, I co-hosted a panel on land grabbing and corruption with Transparency International. This global annual event gathers together governments, civil society, enforcement agencies, journalists and others to discuss ways of tackling corruption. This year’s IACC focused on ending impunity – a problem which has helped make land grabbing prolific and very hard to tackle.

    Latest Events

    Enhancing Open Access to Knowledge, Information & Data in the Mekong: Open Data Festival and Regional Capacity-building Workshop

    26 February 2017 to 28 February 2017

    Location

    Best Western Green Hill Yangon
    Myanmar
    MM

    Over the last 30 years, the nation states in the Mekong region have taken steps to reform their land policy to facilitate the efforts to end poverty, create wealth and grow their economies. To do this most effectively in this modern age requires the leveraging of technical innovations and data.

    Debate

    Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region: a Dialogue

    13 February 2017 to 27 February 2017
    Facilitators
    Natalia Scurrah
    Terry Parnell
    n.sorensen

    From 13-27 February 2017, the Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG) project and the Land Portal will co-facilitate an online dialogue on the Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region.

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    Partners

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 1090

    Cambodia - Law on Expropriation

    "Article 1: This law aims to define an expropriation in the Kingdom of Cambodia by defining the principles, mechanisms, and procedures of expropriation, and defining fair and just compensation for any construction, rehabilitation, and public physical infrastructure expansion project for the public and national interests and development of Cambodia."

    Resource information

    February 2010

    The Political Economy of Land Governance in Lao PDR

    This country level analysis addresses land governance in Laos in two ways. First, it summarises what the existing body of knowledge tells us about power and configurations that shape access to and exclusion from land, particularly among smallholders, the rural poor, ethnic minorities and women. Second, it draws upon existing literature and expert assessment to provide a preliminary analysis of the openings for and obstacles to land governance reform afforded by the political economic structures and dynamics in the country.

    Resource information

    November 2015

    Challenges in Managing State Land in Cambodia: Addressing Competing Interests for Lands Inside Protected Areas (PAs)

    Protected area management is threatened by weak articulation between the goals for conservation, national development and local livelihoods. This discussion note examines the competing interests for lands inside Cambodian Protected Areas and makes suggestions for policy considerations.

    Resource information

    March 2016

    Innovative Approach to Land Conflict Transformation: Lessons Learned From the HAGL/Indigenous Communities’ Mediation Process in Ratanakiri, Cambodia

    In the Mekong region, conflicts between local communities and large scale land concessions are widespread. They are often difficult to solve. In Cambodia, an innovative approach to conflict resolution was tested in a case involving a private company, Hoang Anh Gia Lai (HAGL), and several indigenous communities who lost some of their customary lands and forests when the company obtained a concession to grow rubber in the Province of Ratanakiri. The approach was developed by CSOs Equitable Cambodia (EC) and Inclusive Development International (IDI) with the support of QDF funding from MRLG.

    Resource information

    July 2016

    The Recognition and Security of Customary Tenure of Indigenous Peoples in Cambodia: a Legal Perspective

    This short thematic study challenges the assumption that the legal framework to recognize and protect indigenous peoples’ (IP) customary lands is adequate and that the challenge lies in its implementation. With support from MRLG, a core group of IP NGOs of the Cambodia Indigenous Peoples Alliance (CIPA) held a series of seminars to scrutinize this legal framework, identify gaps and make recommendations for a revision of the supporting legal framework. The thematic study documents this joint reflection.

    Resource information

    November 2016