Since Kyrgyzstan became independent in 1991, the government started investing in the agricultural sector for the economic growth of the country. State owned enterprises were abolished in favor of smallholder enterprises. Agriculture now accounts for more than 30% of GDP, and more than half of the population works in agriculture.

The Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic (amended in 2010) recognizes private property rights and protects rights to private property. Another relevant piece of legislation related to land is the Land Code of 1999, which regulates agricultural land, industrial lands, settlement areas, forests, protected natural territories and reserve land. In addition, there are several laws governing land tenure, such as the Regulation on Process of Allocating Land Shares to Citizens of 1994, which sets the procedures for redistributing collective farm lands to citizens; the Law on State Registration of Rights to Immovable Property and Transactions of 1998 for the creation of a single land registration system and the registration of all transactions; and the Regulation on Sale and Purchase of Agricultural Land Parcels of 2001, establishing the rules to purchase and sale agricultural land. Customary practices did not disappear, and they continue to play a major role influencing the development of formal legislation procedures, the resolution of land disputes and the observance of the law in the villages.

Land conflicts in Kyrgyzstan involve individuals, state actors, and entities across international borders. Many of these conflicts are related to land allocation, corruption and favoritism, and on a larger scale they also depend on the co-existence of different ethnic groups. Land disputes are generally resolved by formal and informal tribunals (Local village leaders and women‘s councils), which can apply customary laws that are not in contrast with formal laws. 

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.


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    Displaying 1 - 6 of 918
    November 2015

    This Regional Law establishes that price of purchase of land plots located within the boundaries of regional urban areas destined for agricultural production, without edifices or constructions thereon previously allotted to agricultural organization or to peasant farm on condition of permanent (open-ended) tenancy or on condition of life-long hereditary possession shall be set at fifteen percent of cadastre value of the aforesaid plots of land.

    March 2014

    This Governmental Decree establishes that the scope of land cadastre shall be to provide state bodies of all levels, natural and legal persons with the informationrelated to land areas and land quality located within the boundaries of urban areas, local government, districts and at the national level.

    August 2008

    These Regulations implement provisions of the Mines and Minerals Development Act, 2008 with respect to a wide variety of matters such as: organization of mining cadastre offices; application for, or grant or renewal of a mining right or a mineral processing licence; transfer of a mining right or a mineral processing licence; permission for the abandonment of a mining area; alteration of or prospecting in a mining area; various matters relating to survey, mapping and certification.The central mining cadastre office in Lusaka shall administer mining rights and mineral processing licences.

    December 2015

    This Regional Law transfers to local government some plenary powers related to governance of plots of urban public land with undelimited ownership in case of availability of validated land-use planning scheme, except for cases envisaged by federal legislation on roads and road-related activities.

    May 2006

    This Act establishes the Zambia Development Agency and the Trade and Industrial Development Fund and makes provision in general for economic development in Zambia. In certain cases, development requires a licence, permit or certificate of registration of the Board of the Agency.

    October 2010

    This Regional Law establishes that Civic Chamber must ensure coordination between citizens, social associations, state bodies and local government, promotion of civil society institutions, and consideration of the interests of the population in the process of elaboration and realization of state policy, protection of rights and freedoms of citizens. Civic Chamber shall be set up to ensure open and transparent discussion of the most important problems of social development, promotion of civil society institutions and democratic principles of the functioning of state bodies.