Since Kyrgyzstan became independent in 1991, the government started investing in the agricultural sector for the economic growth of the country. State owned enterprises were abolished in favor of smallholder enterprises. Agriculture now accounts for more than 30% of GDP, and more than half of the population works in agriculture.

The Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic (amended in 2010) recognizes private property rights and protects rights to private property. Another relevant piece of legislation related to land is the Land Code of 1999, which regulates agricultural land, industrial lands, settlement areas, forests, protected natural territories and reserve land. In addition, there are several laws governing land tenure, such as the Regulation on Process of Allocating Land Shares to Citizens of 1994, which sets the procedures for redistributing collective farm lands to citizens; the Law on State Registration of Rights to Immovable Property and Transactions of 1998 for the creation of a single land registration system and the registration of all transactions; and the Regulation on Sale and Purchase of Agricultural Land Parcels of 2001, establishing the rules to purchase and sale agricultural land. Customary practices did not disappear, and they continue to play a major role influencing the development of formal legislation procedures, the resolution of land disputes and the observance of the law in the villages.

Land conflicts in Kyrgyzstan involve individuals, state actors, and entities across international borders. Many of these conflicts are related to land allocation, corruption and favoritism, and on a larger scale they also depend on the co-existence of different ethnic groups. Land disputes are generally resolved by formal and informal tribunals (Local village leaders and women‘s councils), which can apply customary laws that are not in contrast with formal laws. 

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


Indicators Year Value Unit Dataset Source Remove

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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen. The indicators of this dataset assess national laws against Section 16 of the VGGT standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in the VGGTs.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.



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    The Land Governance Assessment Framework - Identifying and Monitoring Good Practices in the Land Sector


    Resource information

    December 2011

    Property Rights and Resource Governance Country Profile: Kyrgyzstan

    This resource is a USAID land tenure country profile that provides information on fundamental land tenure issues, including tenure types, legal frameworks, and land administration and institutions. This country profile is divided into the following sections: Summary/overview, Land, Freshwater, Trees and Forests, Minerals, and Data Sources.

    Resource information

    December 2011