India is a large country with a population of 1.1 billion people. Agricultural land represents 61% of the total land area, and approximately 71% of Indians live in rural areas. The government of India has made extensive efforts to reduce rural poverty and ensure equal opportunities in terms of land access.

The constitution of India gives each state the power to decide and implement land-tenure related rules, and consequently every state has its own land tenure system. However, at the national level, several land-related law have been passed that allow the state to take land from private parties for public purposes and to govern land sales and regulate the title registration process. After independence, many states went through land reforms to regulate the relationship between tenants and landowners. The land ceiling laws sets a limit to the amount of land owned by a person or a family and allows the state to take a piece of land and redistribute it to the poor. States also recognize religious and customary laws concerning inherited land; however, these laws generally do not protect women’s rights to land. Less than 10% of land held by private individuals is registered under the name of women.

India is a country significantly affected by disputes and conflicts related to land. Issues concerning land range from the undistributed land that government has declared to be in excess of established ceilings to protests due to the development of industrial projects. One of the principal problems related to land conflicts is that poor people are generally unaware of their rights to land and property and they rarely have access to courts. 


Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

  • Please, select year and panels to show the info.
  • Very Good Practice
  • Good Practice
  • Weak Practice
  • Very Weak Practice
  • Missing Value

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen. The indicators of this dataset assess national laws against Section 16 of the VGGT standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in the VGGTs.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.


Latest News

Marginal farmer gives up land for Mallannasagar project, ends life

By: R. Avadhani

Date: 30 January 2017

Source: The Hindu 

Dispossessed by the proposed Mallannasagar project, owner of half an acre land loses confidence and is pushed to take the extreme step

After surrendering his half an acre of land to Government for the Mallannasagar Project, marginal farmer Chatlapally Ramulu lost the only security he had and with that the confidence to earn enough to clear his debts.

Police try to detain demonstrators during a protest organised by people of India's low-caste Dalit community against what they say are increasing atrocities against the community in Ahmedabad, India September 27, 2016. — Reuters pic - See more at: http://

Indian film heroes tackle land rights, champion underdog

MUMBAI, Jan 26 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - A villainous company. Corrupt government officials. A heroic defender of farmers emerging victorious from a fight over land.

This is far from a typical storyline for Indian film, which more often promises movie-goers a diet of syrupy romances, family dramas or all-action flicks.

But a slew of regional-language movies has made unlikely heroes of those who defend Indians' land rights, showing how the fight over land now influences the country's popular culture, which generally shies away from contentious issues.

Latest Blog

Latest Events

India Land And Development Conference, 2017

Wednesday, April 5, 2017 to Thursday, April 6, 2017


Maulana Azad Road
110003 New Delhi

Land Governance for Accelerated and Inclusive Development

5-6 April, 2017, New Delhi, India

Land is globally seen as a potential tool to create conditions and opportunities for realizing social and economic equality and maintain cultural identity. Good land governance is vital to shared prosperity, accelerate, inclusive and sustainable development. Secured land tenure, especially for women and indigenous communities, now considered as the key to to achieving the global commitments like UN’s SDGs and VGGT of FAO.   

3rd International Conference on Natural Resource Management for Food and Rural Livelihoods

Tuesday, February 10, 2015 to Friday, February 13, 2015

10 Feb 2015 - 13 Feb 2015

The Soil Conservation Society of India, New Delhi (established in 1951 and have more than 2900 professionals as life members) is going to organize its 3rd International Conference on Natural Resource Management for Food and Rural Livelihoods from 10-13 February 2015 at New Delhi, India.

The event has been sponsored by Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Government of India, New Delhi.

Location: New Delhi, India

First circular 



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From Risk and Conflict to Peace and Prosperity

Amid the realities of major political turbulence, there was growing recognition in 2016 that the land rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities are key to ensuring peace and prosperity, economic development, sound investment, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Despite equivocation by governments, a critical mass of influential investors and companies now recognize the market rationale for respecting community land rights.

Resource information

February 2017

Women’s Land Rights in South Asia: Struggles and Diverse Contexts

“In south Asia, since the 1970s, previously marginalised sections of the rural poor started to organise themselves in movements. In recent years, most of these struggles have been directed against the impact of the liberalising state on the rural poor. For the vast majority, there has been an erosion of livelihood avenues, food insecurity, a loss of assets - owing largely to the loss of their traditional access and control of natural resources. Food security is threatened by loss of biodiversity and loss of knowledge.

Resource information

December 2009