India

Land is an important source of identity, symbol of social status and foundation for rural power in India, often carrying significant emotional attachment. With a long history, diverse geography and pluralistic culture, land governance has evolved in India through communal, imperial, feudal, colonial and modern systems, gradually moving towards individualization and conclusive titling. Contemporary land tenure is dotted with mosaics of customary tenure and community ownership in tribal and hilly areas and dwindling rural common lands amidst expanding of privatized spaces in urban and industrial areas getting converted from once predominant forest and agriculture landscapes. Indian land governance is at a transition between nation’s economic growth aspirations incumbent upon making land available for investments, while the socialist state is committed to an agenda on land and forest reforms that allocate to and recognize the rights of landless and tribal respectively on government and forestlands. Environmental concerns restrict diversion of forestlands and promote expansion of protected areas. Land conflicts are on the rise as a result of competition, continued lack of tenure clarity around common lands and increasing demands for higher compensation for private lands, which bottlenecks investments.

Land governance in India in the post-independent period has evolved as a state-subject, with the land-revenue department as the main custodian, while the actual responsibility is shared by number of departments and agencies at the state and local level, making land governance complex with overlapping jurisdictions. There are high transaction costs to access and transfer land.  Land-related disputes constitute more than half of disputes in civil and a significant number in criminal courts cases, which are often dragged for long duration  and drain private and public resources.

Federal and state governments have brought in many institutional innovations, adopted new technologies to improve land records management, promoted women land rights, facilitated alternate dispute resolution and are now contemplating tenancy reforms. The last seventy years of land governance can be broadly divided into four phases of reforms:

  • 1) land reform aiming land to cultivators during 1960s-80s;
  • 2) attempts at involving local self governance institutions through decentralization of land governance,
  • 3) digitization of land records aiming at conclusive titling in the early 21st century; and
  • 4) forest, land acquisition, and tenancy reforms occuring mostly in the current decade. 
Source

Indicators

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit
Percentage

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit
PPP$ 2011

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Total funding for programmes still ongoing in January 2016 (US $).

Measurement unit
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing in January 2016

Measurement unit
Number

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Mapping

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Compare countries

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Infographics

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT)


Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Media

Latest News

11 December 2017
India

Small farmers plant a more diverse variety of crops, making them more resilient to climate change

MUMBAI, Dec 11 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - India's small farmers are better equipped than large landowners to deal with climate change, but need more support to find innovative ways to minimise the impacts of higher temperatures, uneven rainfall, floods and droughts, analysts said.

About 60 percent of India's population of 1.3 billion depends on agriculture for a living. More than three quarters of farmers cultivate than 2 hectares (5 acres) of land each.

11 December 2017
India

Forest foods are in high demand in haats or tribal community markets and nearby rural markets. Forest produce such as honey, amla and several fruits are in great demand in urban malls. Though this may appear as an opportunity for economic empowerment of the tribal communities, this may lead to degradation of the forests, hampering availability.

30 November 2017
India

Forest Minister B. Ramanath Rai says he will write to Centre to simplify rules for allotment of forestland

Providing title deeds to forest dwellers under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 was the focus of the interaction between children who live in forest areas and Forest Minister B. Ramanath Rai.

24 November 2017
India

The blockchain technology was first developed for peer-to-peer currency transactions. Innovators are now seeking to use the technology to update and secure the land records in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Known as disruptive technology that no one can control and hegemonise, blockchain is a decentralised distributed digital ledger collectively maintained by a new work of computers, called nodes. This will not allow one person to modify without those who maintain the records agreeing to the change. 

Latest Blog

India

By Madhu Sarin, Fellow of the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI)

 

Q: What is required to strengthen women’s land and community forest rights in practice in India?

Traditionally, small ‘Pygmy’ communities moved frequently through forest territories, gathering a vast range of forest products, collecting and exchanging goods with neighboring settled societies. © Selcen Kucukustel/Atlas
Global
Brazil
Colombia
Malaysia
India

By  Lewis Evans, Survival International

For Earth Day (April 22), Survival International reveals some of the amazing ways in which tribal peoples are the best conservationists and guardians of the natural world:

1. The Baka “Pygmies” have over 15 words for elephant

The Baka people know so much about elephants, they have different words for them according to their sex, age and even temperament.

Latest Events

19 February 2018 to 21 February 2018

Location

India
IN
India

India Land and Development Conference ( ILDC 2018 )
CONNECTION, INCLUSION, INNOVATION & CAPACITY TO IMPROVE LAND GOVERNANCE
Venue: India International Centre, New Delhi Dates: 19-21 Feb, 2018

Organizing committee of ILDC is very happy to announce 2nd India Land and Development Conference to continue inclusive and interdisciplinary conversations among stakeholders around land governance in India. 

5 April 2017 to 6 April 2017

Location

India International Centre 110003 New Delhi
India
IN
India

Land Governance for Accelerated and Inclusive Development

5-6 April, 2017, New Delhi, India

 

 

10 February 2015 to 13 February 2015
India

10 Feb 2015 - 13 Feb 2015

The Soil Conservation Society of India, New Delhi (established in 1951 and have more than 2900 professionals as life members) is going to organize its 3rd International Conference on Natural Resource Management for Food and Rural Livelihoods from 10-13 February 2015 at New Delhi, India.

The event has been sponsored by Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Government of India, New Delhi.

Location: New Delhi, India

First circular 

Debate

Women's Land Rights and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Closed
30 October 2017 to 10 November 2017
Facilitators
Sejal Dave
Pranab Choudhury
Global
India

This online discussion aims to facilitate inclusive exchange of opinion and information on the state of land rights of women in India, the legal, institutional framework and socio-cultural factors affecting women’s equitable land tenure rights, good practices/innovations around women’s land tenure rights by Government/NGO and challenges and opportunities towards realization of  gender equitable land tenure by 2030.  It will analyze the status of data availability and accessibility around women land rights in India with available information from different sources along with an assessment of

Organizations

Library

Displaying 1 - 6 of 1758
Reports & Research
November 2017
Global
India

This publication is based on a range of past studies on ICCAs conducted in several regions of the world in the last two decades, and, most recently, on 19 country level case studies. The latter were commissioned as part of a project on ICCA Recognition and Support, undertaken by the ICCA Consortium, coordinated by Kalpavriksh.

It also incorporates some key findings of a parallel project on ICCA Legislation, also undertaken by the ICCA Consortium, and coordinated by Natural Justice.

The publication intends to:

Legislation
November 2017
India

Access to homestead land, and housing in turn, are basic requirements for human survival. Every citizen needs to have a safe, secure and healthy place to live, work and lead a life of dignity. A house provides not only physical protection against the vagaries of nature, but also space and privacy to an individual and his family for physical, emotional and intellectual growth.

Conference Papers & Reports
November 2017
India

This working paper looks at the new Land Acquisition Rehabilitation and Resettlement (LARR) Bill, 2011 and explores key issues within the text of the Bill and the larger political context of land acquisition in India. 

Reports & Research
September 2017
India

This is a working paper by Kanchi Kohli and Debayan Gupta, Centre for Policy Research,Namati Environmental Justice Program, which throws light on Right  to  Fair  Compensation  and  Transparency  in  Land  Acquisition,  Rehabilitation  and Resettlement (RFCTLARR) Act, 2013. It is indiacted that there has been at the centre of intense debate.