This narrative was written by Pranab Ranjan Choudhury, Sricharan Behera, Navin Kumar Amang, Manoj Kumar Behera.
The authors wish to thank Dr. Ashok Kumar Sircar (Professor, School of Development, Azmi Premji University, Bangalore, India) who provided a detailed peer review of the full-length India Land Governance Country Narrative published on Land Library.
 Areas having higher concentration of tribal communities, which have been formally declared as so; Article 244(1) Part B paragraph 5(2) of Fifth Schedule of the Constitution, bestows power to the Governor (of a state) to make regulations to (a) prohibit or restrict the transfer of land by or among members of Scheduled Tribes (ST) and (b) regulate the allotment of land to members of STs.
 The Sixth Schedule under Article 244 (2) of the Constitution relates to those areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram which are declared as “tribal areas” and provides for District or Regional Autonomous Councils (ADC) for such areas with having wide ranging legislative, judicial and executive powers around all types of land except for reserve forests. These councils are given power to make law, inter alia, for (a) the allotment, occupation or use, or the setting apart, of land, other than reserve forest, for agriculture or grazing or for residential or other non-agricultural or any other purpose likely to promote the interests of the inhabitants of any village or town only except the compulsory acquisition of any land for public purposes by the Government of the State; (b) the management of any forest not being a reserved forest; (c) the regulation of the practice of jhum or other forms of shifting cultivation; (d) the inheritance of property.”
 The Madras Estates (Abolition and Conversion into Ryotwari) Act, 1948 was enacted first to abolish intermediaries. The Orissa Estates Abolition Act was passed in 1951 and by 1955 almost all the states enacted law on abolition of estates /intermediaries
[4 ] The Ninth Scheduled of the Constitution of India added in 1st Constitution Amendment and any law come under this Schedule could not be challenged in courts and beyond the scope of judicial review. Hence, Article 31-B inserted in Ninth Schedule to avoid any challenge in courts (by landlords / intermediaries) and taken away right to property as fundamental rights for carrying out the land reforms agenda of the state smoothly. Article 31A Saves laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
 It also strengthens forest-conservation regime by ensuring their livelihood and food security, including the responsibilities and authority for sustainable use, conservation of biodiversity and maintenance of ecological balance.
 For example, Section 22 of Odisha Land Reforms Act, 1960 declared the transfer of land belonging to STs and SCs to non-STs and Non-SCs without the prior permission of the competent authority is void and illegal which need to be restored.
 Land and Governance under the Fifth Schedule: An Overview of the Law, Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India & United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
 Under zamindari system “property rights in land were conferred upon the landlord, subject to the punctual payment of revenue to the government at a fixed rate”. It annulled all existing customary rights of tenants on land and shattered their age-old spirit of mutual dependence between landlords. The land settled in the name of landlords, not with the cultivators, which made the land revenue ‘fixed in perpetuity’ on March 22, 1793, was introduced in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, parts of Utter Pradesh, and North Madras.
 Under the ryotwari system, the ryot or cultivators were recognized as the proprietors of land who could sublet, mortgage or transfer by gift or sale, in direct contact with the state bypassing intermediaries. From the ryots’ point it was a better system apparently favoured ‘peasant proprietorship’ in contrast to zamindari tenure.
 The Mahalwari or communal system was introduced in 1833 and was first adopted in Agra and Oudh and later extended to the Punjab in North India. The whole village was treated as a unit and the village lands were held jointly by the village communities’ means that ownership of property was communal or joint.
 This may be the only reason that why revenue administration system is suffering.
 Kind of property that has been dedicated or appropriated to God or temple
 Land granted to priest and learned people
 It is a fully Government owned Company established in 2008, to deal with the matters relating to lands belonging to Government of Karnataka or statutory bodies. The mandate of the company is to secure thousands of acres of government land, recovered from encroachers and ensure its proper utilization, http://kplc.kar.nic.in/about_us.asp
 Ministry of Railways, Ministry of Defence, Airport Authority of India, Port Trusts are some of the big land owners
 Reserve Forests, Wildlife Sanctuary, National Parks, Tiger Reserve, etc. under direct control of Forest Department.
 As per Supreme Court of India (Civil Appeal No.1132/2011 @ SLP (C) No.3109/2011) since time immemorial there have been common lands inhering in the village communities in India variously called ‘Gram Sabha Land’, Gram Panchayat Land (in many North Indian States) (sic), which were for centuries used for common benefit of villagers of the village for various purposes, for e.g. for their cattle to drink and bathe, for storing the harvested grain, for grazing ground, as a maidan for their children to play, threshing floor, carnivals, circuses, ramlila, cart stands, water-bodies, passages, cremation ground , graveyards etc.
 This is a well-defined category of land in the classification used in official land-use records. Traditionally, grazing and pasture land has been the most important constituents of CPR land. Many villages have land earmarked as permanent pasture land/grazing land. These are variously known as gauchar, gochar, gairan, gomol, etc. Villagers have user right on permanent pasture by legal sanction.
 This item includes all land under village forest and woodlots. This also includes the area notified as forest within the village, which may belong to the forest department, or any other government department (like Revenue or PWD.) but is formally under the management of village panchayat or a community of the village.
 They include village sites and all area of land which is earmarked for common use of the villagers for economic activities, such as (a) processing of agricultural produce, (b) storing of grains, other agricultural produce, firewood, etc., (c) use for other household enterprise. Report No. 452: Common Property Resources in India, Jan - June 1998, National Sample Survey 54th Round.
 Rakshit(Reserved) lands or include acquired lands (under Land Acquisition Act, 1894) but not transferred, irrigation works, lands transferred to Gram Panchayats, Gochar lands (grazing land),land for village settlement, poramboke land, Gramya jungle etc.
 Those States coming under the Sixth Scheduled of the Constitution of India. The Sixth Schedule under Article 244 (2) of the Constitution relates to those areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram which are declared as “tribal areas” and provides for District or Regional Autonomous Councils for such areas. These councils have wide ranging legislative, judicial and executive powers.
 Reportable in the Supreme Court of India Civil Appellate Jurisdiction, Civil Appeal No.1132 /2011 @ Slp(C) No.3109/2011 Jagpal Singh & Ors. .Appellant (s) -versus-State of Punjab & Ors. Respondent (s)
 Section 4 of FRA 2006 for Recognition, Restoration and Vesting of Forest Rights and Related Matters.
 Although a significant change shown in agrarian structure with 92% of holding owned wholly and self-operative in the country, though various studies indicated higher or unreported concealed tenancies.
 “Tenancy Reforms in India” in Legal Service India - Tenancy Reforms in India by Jayant Bhatt-Amity Law School, New Delhi http://www.legalserviceindia.com/articles/tena_agr.htm
 When these legislations were passed in the 1960s and 70s, almost one-third of the rural households who were operating as tenants were evicted.
 The prohibition of tenancy has not really ended the practice. On the other hand, it has resulted in agricultural practices that are not conducive to increased production. This, in turn, also depresses employment opportunities for the landless agricultural laborers.” It also mentioned “the ban on tenancy, which was meant to protect tenants, has only ended up hurting the economic interests of the tenants as they are not even recognized as tenants. As a result, they are denied the benefits of laws that provide security of tenure and regulate rent.
 The Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005, [Act No. 39 of Year 2005, dated 5th September 2005], http://www.hrln.org/admin/issue/subpdf/HSA_Amendment_2005.pdf.
 Where's My Share: Understanding Daughters' Right To Property, by Anshul Agarwal, May 11, 2016, https://www.makaan.com/iq/legal-taxes-laws/what-are-property-rights-of-daughters-in-hufs.
 The statistical system of the erstwhile British era identified 5 board indicators like (1) forest, (2) area not available for cultivation, (3) other uncultivated land excluding current fallows, (4) fallow land and (5) net area sown. A Technical Committee on Coordination of Agricultural Statistics constituted by the Ministry of Agriculture in 1949 identified major gaps in the existing data collection on agriculture and suggested to add four more categories to make it a 9-fold classification of the total land available. The following are the 9-fold classification followed in India since independence: (1) Forests, (2) Area under non-agricultural uses, (3) Barren and uncultivable land, (4) Permanent pastures & other grazing land, (5) Land under miscellaneous tree crops, (6) Culturable waste land (7) Fallow land other than current fallows, (8) Current fallows and (9) Net area sown. The land use statistics in India was developed as a source of information for planning of agricultural production. Around 93 percent of the agricultural land is covered in the agricultural statistics since 1972, which was again enhanced to 94 percent in 1998. The agricultural statistics is captured through complete enumeration for 80 percent of the geographical area and the rest by sample surveys and conventional estimates.
 Compendium of Environment Statistics India, 2011, Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India; Agricultural Statistics at a Glance, 2012, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, http://eands.dacnet.nic.in/latest_2006.htm, accessed on 5 July 2013. *Provisional; Net sown area represents the total area sown with crops and orchards, with the area sown more than once in the same year counted only once; Barren and uncultivable land includes all land covered by mountains and deserts, which cannot be brought under cultivation except at an exorbitant cost; Cultivable wasteland includes land available for cultivation, but not cultivated for the last 5 or more years
 History of land use in India during 1880–2010: Large-scale land transformations reconstructed from satellite data and historical archives” by Hanqin Tian, Kamaljit Banger, Tao Boa, Vinay K. Dadhwal, in Global and Planetary Change 121 (2014) 78–88, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921818114001283 access on 23 June 2017.
 Category wise details of the extent of forest land finally diverted for non-forest purpose under Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, Statement referred to in reply to parts (a) to (d) of the Lok Sabha starred question no. 334 asked by Shri Janardan Singh Sigriwal 'Ecological Impact of Mining' due for reply on 09.08.2016.
 Status report on implementation of the Scheduled Tribes & Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 (ending 30.04.2017), Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India http://www.tribal.nic.in/FRA/data/MPRAPR2017.pdf
 A Conclusive Title may be defined as an unassailable and conclusive proof of ownership of property in contrast to the presumptive land title. Four basic principles need to be followed in order to reach the stage of conferring conclusive Titles are: a single window (agency) to handle land records, the mirror principle, the curtain principle and the insurance principle. in “Moving Towards Clear Land Titles In India: Potential Benefits, A Road-Map And Remaining Challenges" by Rita Sinha, Department of Land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India,http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTIE/Resources/R_Sinha.docx
 Two centrally sponsored schemes (1) Strengthening of Revenue Administration &Updating of Land Records (SRA&ULR)’ in 1987-88 and ‘(2) Computerisation of Land Records (CLR)’ in 1988-89 merged in 2008 under NLRMP which later renamed as Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme (DILRMP).
 The National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP), “Guidelines, Technical Manuals and MIS 2008-09,” DoLR, MoRD, Government of India.
 This includes the maintenance and updating of textual records, maps, survey and settlement operations and registration of immovable property.
 The register or cadastral records reflects (mirrors) accurately and completely all current facts about a person’s title.
 Means the true depiction of record of title of ownership status, automated and automatic mutation, without following the need of past records.
 To guarantee the title for its correctness and indemnifies the title holder against loss arising on account of any defect.
 including rights of ownership over minor forest produce, rights of uses or entitlements such as fish and other products of water bodies, access to grazing and traditional seasonal resource access of nomadic or pastoralist communities, nistar rights, traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights, rights of worship, cultural diversity, etc.
 Under section 2(a) of FRA 2006 "community forest resource" means customary common forest land within the traditional or customary boundaries of the village or seasonal use of landscape in the case of pastoral communities, including reserved forests, protected forests and protected areas such as Sanctuaries and National Parks to which the community had traditional access. Rights over “community forest resources” u/s u/s 3(1)(i) means “rights to protect, regenerate or conserve or manage any community forest resource which the community (gram sabha) have been traditionally protecting and conserving for sustainable use.
 Such as schools, dispensary or hospital, anganwadis, fair price shops, electric and telecommunication lines, tanks and other minor water bodies, drinking water supply and water pipelines, water or rain water harvesting structures, minor irrigation canals, non-conventional source of energy, skill up-gradation or vocational training centers, roads and community centers under section 3(2) of FRA 2006.
 Potential for Recognition of Community Forest Resource Rights Under India’s Forest Rights Act- A Preliminary Assessment, RRI & NRMC, July 2 0 1 5, www.rightsandresources.org, p.5
 As an example, Odisha Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation (IDCO) was established in the year 1981 with the specific objective of creating infrastructure facilities in the identified Industrial Estate/Areas for rapid and orderly establishment and growth of Industries, trade and commerce. It has been declared as the Nodal Agency for providing industrial infrastructure in the State of Odisha. Major industrial projects require large stretches of land at specific locations based upon project requirements. As nodal agency of Government, it provides land to large projects; identification of Project Site and alienation / acquisition of land on behalf of the project, R&R Facilitation and Forest Clearance in Profile of Odisha Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation,http://www.idco.in/2009/organizationtest.aspx?content=profile
 GOi PLUS (Govt. of Odisha Industrial portal for Land use and Services) is a GIS based industrial land use and infrastructure information system developed by the Industries Department, Government of Odisha. Odisha has created a land bank of 1, 00,000 acres for industrial use. GOi PLUS is a web enabled platform to display real time information with regards to all the industrial land available in the State http://gis.investodisha.org
 Including (i) the need for self-cultivation so that anybody who does not cultivate land personally is not entitled to hold agricultural land; (ii) a requirement to be an agriculturist or an agricultural worker by profession; (iii) a maximum non-agricultural income; (iv) and a ceiling on the amount of land owned (India LGAF Report, 2016).
 The defined “public purpose” include land for strategic purposes, infrastructures (excluding private hospitals, private educational institutions and private hotels), for project affected people, planned development or improvement of village or urban sites or for residential purpose to weaker sections and for persons residing in areas affected by natural calamities or displaced.
 CHAPTER II of LARR Act 2013 deals with Determination of Social Impact and Public Purpose in two parts. Part A deals with Preliminary Investigation for Determination of Social Impact & Public Purpose under section-4, 5 and 6 respectively for preparation of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) study, public hearing for SIA and publication of SIA study, whereas Part-B deals with appraisal of SIA report by an Expert Group under section 7 and 8 respectively for appraisal of SIA report by an Expert Group and Examination of proposals for land acquisition and Social Impact report by appropriate Government.
 Proviso under section 16 (5) of LARR Act on preparation of Rehabilitation and Resettlement Scheme by the Administrator
 Special provision for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under section 41(3) of LARR Act 2013
 Land to each family in every project even in case of irrigation projects, one time financial assistance of Rs. 50,000 per family, additional 25% R&R benefits for families settled outside the district, payment of one third of the compensation amount at very outset, preference in relocation and resettlement in area in same compact block, free land for community and social gatherings
 The compensation to all farmers in rural areas is up to 4 times the highest sales prices in a given area. The acquisition of agricultural and multi-crop land has to be carried out as a last resort. Return of unutilized land to the original owners if the State decides and share of increased land value of to be distributed amongst farmers (if the acquired land is sold to another party) has been set at 40%. All amounts accruing under this act have been exempted from Income tax and from Stamp duty. In case of double displacement of any individual, an additional compensation will be paid of upto 75% of the compensation already provided.
 Rahul Goswami, “What Census 2011 Reveals about Our Growers and Their Land,” http://www.macroscan.org/anl/jun13/Census_2011.pdf.
 Land Conflicts in India-An Interim Analysis, http://rightsandresources.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Land-Conflicts-in-India-An-Interim-Analysis_November-2016.pdf
 8% (66 nos.) of the 804 projects are stalled due to land acquisition problems across 24 States and two Union Territories, as per a list supplied by Finance Ministry to a Right to Information query, in February 2015. http://www.countercurrents.org/nayak050515.htm ; http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/cant-blame-upa-land-acquisition-bill-for-stalled-projects-rti/articleshow/47077042.cms
 Land Disputes and Stalled Investments in India, Bharti Institute of Public Policy, Indian School of Business and The Rights and Resources Initiative, November 2016
 It is a research-based data journalism project that maps and analyzes ongoing land conflicts in India. It is put together by researchers and journalists who are spread across the country http://www.landconflictwatch.org
 Farmers are unhappy with the compensation offered or fear of losing economic value of the productivity of their lands
 The forestland or commons in Schedule V Areas are being diverted projects without consent of village council as required by law. Legal procedures are often not followed or subverted. Widespread concerns are raised on environmental impact of these projects including forest clearance.
 Article 300A said No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law, hence does not discriminate on the basis of gender. Article 39 of the Directive Principles of State Policy of the Constitution of India directs the States in particular to make policy towards securing the rights of the citizens, men and women equally for adequate means of livelihood and to the ownership and control of the material resources of the community, best distribute to subserve the common good.
 There are three ways that a woman can acquire rights over land: (a) from government allocation, (b) through inheritance and (c) by purchase.
 The amendment made by Andhra Pradesh in 1986, Tamil Nadu in 1989, Karnataka in 1994 and Maharashtra in1994.
 “Combining Administrative and Open Source Data for Monitoring Land Governance: Mapping Women Land Rights in the Context of UN’s SDG in India”, by PR Choudhury, MK Behera, S. Sharma, T. Haque, Centre for Land Governance, NRMC, India Paper presented at the “2017 World Bank Conference On Land And Poverty” The World Bank-Washington DC, March 20-24, 2017.