Indonesia

IDN

Indonesia

Indonesian development policies have for the past several decades focused on rapid economic growth, without a targeted strategy to benefit the least powerful groups, such as landless and land-poor agricultural laborers in the densely populated agricultural districts and the equally poor forest-dwelling communities in the less populated islands. Indonesia’s legal and regulatory framework governing land is flawed and in need of a comprehensive overhaul. Throughout the country, the land rights of unregistered owners are insecure, women’s rights to marital property are generally not registered, and registration of all rights is unnecessarily expensive. A deforestation rate of 2% per annum is a significant ongoing threat which imposes especially high costs on traditional adat communities that depend upon forest resources for their livelihood. Indonesia’s legal framework fails to provide an environment conducive to investment and economic growth that would open doors of opportunity for the poor, women and traditional communities.

At least five land and natural resource property-rights issues should be addressed for the benefits of growth to be more widely shared and to increase environmental sustainability. First, ambiguities between formal and customary law are interpreted by governments, officials and citizens in ways that undermine land rights, leading to a growth in land disputes and conflicts which must be addressed. Second, a registration system that is overly complex, inefficient and ambiguous has weakened security of tenure and the development of a functioning land market. Third, land conversions driven by economic development are threatening Indonesia’s vital forest resources and hold implications at the global, national and local levels, particularly related to climate change. Fourth, urban growth has not been accompanied by sufficient investments in housing and urban services despite continuing decentralization. Fifth, the problem of rural landlessness has limited the economic options, basic livelihood strategies and food security of millions of families.

The current era of decentralization of central government functions could be an opportune time to work with district (kabupaten) governments on various land tenure and natural resource property issues. The National Land Agency (BPN) has long resisted reforms and does not appear likely to embrace them, while some district governments may be more amenable to reforms that they see as responsive to the needs of their communities. This could also be an opportune time to engage with civil-society organizations that have an interest in agrarian, natural resource and legal aid matters, but which may not have sufficient technical capacity to design and promote specific legislative reforms.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Indicators

Indicators Year Value Unit Dataset Source Remove

Loading data ...

Compare countries

Mapping

Loading data ...

Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    18 May 2017

     

    Poverty eradication is high on President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo administration’s agenda. On his election campaign trail in Bandung, West Java, on July 3, 2014, he elucidated how he would address the acute poverty among 29 million citizens, 18 million of whom live in rural areas. A priority program he envisaged was provision of land to 4.5 million poor families.

    21 April 2017

     

    ASOLOKOBAL, Indonesia — Laurensius Lani’s footsteps can be heard at dawn alongside the traditional honay thatched-roof houses of the Baliem Valley, here in the archipelago country’s eastermost Papua province.

    27 March 2017

     

    Land reform has been much talked about lately, but not everyone understands what it really means. The term is interesting because it is related to what is really needed to be revised in our existing agrarian field.

    When talking about agrarian reform, it is not only about land aspects but also has a wider scope, such as water, forestry and other natural resources. Some experts often refer to it as land reform instead of agrarian reform, and this could limit its meaning to be just about land.

    17 March 2017

    In almost every aisle of the grocery store, you can find products from the palm oil, soy, wood, and cattle industries. Together, these industries are responsible for more than a third of tropical deforestation annually, according to the non-profit organization Forest Trends. While strides have been made by all four industries toward establishing deforestation-free commodity supply chains, the cattle industry has lagged behind the others.

    Latest Blog

    Partners

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 182
    Legislation
    April 2007

    This Law, consisting of 80 articles divided into XIII Chapters, provides for the spatial management within Republic of Indonesia, based on the following principles: a) integrity; b) compatibility, harmony and balance; c) sustainability; d) productivity and profitability; e) openness; f) togetherness and partnership; g) protection of public interest; h) legality and justice; and i) accountability.

    Legislation
    September 2014

    This Act, consisting of 411 articles divided into 27 Chapters, establishes composition, duties and responsibilities of the Local Government. It specifies implementation of government affairs which will be carried out by the local government as well as related legislation according to the principles of autonomy and assistance with the broad autonomy within the system and the principles of the Republic of Indonesia as defined in the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Year 1945.

    Legislation
    October 2014

    This Law, consisting of XIII Chapters, regulates the structure, rights and obligation and other requirements of a village and traditional village. The Village is a unit of community that has boundaries with the authority to regulate and manage the affairs of government, the interests of local communities based on community initiatives, the right of the origin, and/or traditional rights recognized and respected in the system of government of the Republic of Indonesia.This Law is divided as follows: General Provisions (Chap. I); Position and Type of Village (Chap.

    Legislation
    October 2014

    This Law, consisting of 118 articles divided into XIX Chapters, regulates the Plantation sector. The implementation of the Law on Plantation aims to: a. improve the welfare and prosperity of the people; b. increasing source of foreign exchange; c. provide employment and business opportunities; d. increase production, productivity, quality, value added, competitiveness, and market share; e. improve and meet the needs of consumer and industrial raw materials in the country; f. provide protection to the plantation business communities and society; g.