IDN

Indonesia

Indonesia

English

Indonesian development policies have for the past several decades focused on rapid economic growth, without a targeted strategy to benefit the least powerful groups, such as landless and land-poor agricultural laborers in the densely populated agricultural districts and the equally poor forest-dwelling communities in the less populated islands. Indonesia’s legal and regulatory framework governing land is flawed and in need of a comprehensive overhaul. Throughout the country, the land rights of unregistered owners are insecure, women’s rights to marital property are generally not registered, and registration of all rights is unnecessarily expensive. A deforestation rate of 2% per annum is a significant ongoing threat which imposes especially high costs on traditional adat communities that depend upon forest resources for their livelihood. Indonesia’s legal framework fails to provide an environment conducive to investment and economic growth that would open doors of opportunity for the poor, women and traditional communities.

At least five land and natural resource property-rights issues should be addressed for the benefits of growth to be more widely shared and to increase environmental sustainability. First, ambiguities between formal and customary law are interpreted by governments, officials and citizens in ways that undermine land rights, leading to a growth in land disputes and conflicts which must be addressed. Second, a registration system that is overly complex, inefficient and ambiguous has weakened security of tenure and the development of a functioning land market. Third, land conversions driven by economic development are threatening Indonesia’s vital forest resources and hold implications at the global, national and local levels, particularly related to climate change. Fourth, urban growth has not been accompanied by sufficient investments in housing and urban services despite continuing decentralization. Fifth, the problem of rural landlessness has limited the economic options, basic livelihood strategies and food security of millions of families.

The current era of decentralization of central government functions could be an opportune time to work with district (kabupaten) governments on various land tenure and natural resource property issues. The National Land Agency (BPN) has long resisted reforms and does not appear likely to embrace them, while some district governments may be more amenable to reforms that they see as responsive to the needs of their communities. This could also be an opportune time to engage with civil-society organizations that have an interest in agrarian, natural resource and legal aid matters, but which may not have sufficient technical capacity to design and promote specific legislative reforms.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Indicators

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen. The indicators of this dataset assess national laws against Section 16 of the VGGT standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in the VGGTs.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    Agrarian reform to end control over land

    Monday, March 27, 2017

     

    Land reform has been much talked about lately, but not everyone understands what it really means. The term is interesting because it is related to what is really needed to be revised in our existing agrarian field.

    When talking about agrarian reform, it is not only about land aspects but also has a wider scope, such as water, forestry and other natural resources. Some experts often refer to it as land reform instead of agrarian reform, and this could limit its meaning to be just about land.

    Cattle industry lags behind in addressing impact on deforestation

    Friday, March 17, 2017

    In almost every aisle of the grocery store, you can find products from the palm oil, soy, wood, and cattle industries. Together, these industries are responsible for more than a third of tropical deforestation annually, according to the non-profit organization Forest Trends. While strides have been made by all four industries toward establishing deforestation-free commodity supply chains, the cattle industry has lagged behind the others.

    APP mega mill supplier faces community protests over land rights

    Thursday, March 9, 2017

    Community groups in South Sumatra are protesting against Asia Pulp & Paper's planned choice of timber supplier for its massive new pulp and tissue mill, which they say used the army and police to intimidate them during a public consultation over land use.

    Community groups have launched a protest against one of the suppliers to Asia Pulp and Paper’s (APP) new mill in South Sumatra, Indonesia, accusing the company of using intimidation tactics during a public consultation over land rights. 

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    Displaying 1 - 6 of 163

    From emergency relief to post-tsunami reconstruction - The Indonesian experience

    Post-tsunami reconstruction has been under way in the Indonesian province of Aceh for nearly two years. In the authors' view, swift coordination of goals and instruments has enabled positive synergies to be created between short-term development-oriented emergency aid and long-term recovery. In this way, and by means of a conflict-sensitive approach, the aim is to guarantee the sustainability of the reconstruction effort.

    From Risk and Conflict to Peace and Prosperity

    Amid the realities of major political turbulence, there was growing recognition in 2016 that the land rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities are key to ensuring peace and prosperity, economic development, sound investment, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Despite equivocation by governments, a critical mass of influential investors and companies now recognize the market rationale for respecting community land rights.

    Resource information

    February 2017

    The Land Governance Assessment Framework - Identifying and Monitoring Good Practices in the Land Sector

    Full citation: Deininger, K., Selod, H. and Burns, A., THE LAND GOVERNANCE ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK - IDENTIFYING AND MONITORING GOOD PRACTICES IN THE LAND SECTOR (World Bank 2011).

    Resource information

    December 2011