Hong Kong


Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


    Latest News

    south africa township
    29 August 2017
    South Africa
    Hong Kong

    Last month, the South African Independent Electoral Commission announced in frustration that it needs USD 22.9 million to collect addresses ahead of a court-mandated deadline, a problem compounded by the fact that most townships don’t have well-marked street names.



    Displaying 1 - 6 of 12
    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2015
    Hong Kong

    The changing mode of urban development through time can bring a varied landscape mosaic accompanied by spatial-temporal differentiation of urban vegetation. Hong Kong as an ultra-compact city generates intense interactions between trees and urban fabric to highlight urbanization effects on tree communities. The study areas cover public housing estates which accommodate about half of the 7.26 million population. Thirteen site factors related to estate, landform and habitat traits were measured or computed as surrogate urbanization effects.

    January 2015
    Hong Kong

    This economy profile for Doing Business
    2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Hong
    Kong. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also
    provides data for other selected economies (comparator
    economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the
    12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the
    regulations that enhance business activity and those that
    constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing

    June 2014
    Hong Kong

    This economy profile presents the Doing
    Business indicators for Hong Kong. In a series of annual
    reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting
    domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in
    10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a
    business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders.
    This year's report data cover regulations measured from
    June 2012 through May 2013. The report is the 11th edition

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2013
    Hong Kong

    Aerosol observations are essential for understanding the Earth's radiation budget and the complexities of climate change, as they are involved in the backscattering of solar radiation and the formation of cloud condensation nuclei. In Hong Kong, the most direct effect is on air quality. Atmospheric haze caused by the emission of aerosols from industrial and vehicular sources creates visibility lower than 8 km for approximately 20% of the time, having risen at 6% per decade since 1980, but regional emissions are at least as influential as local ones.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2013
    Hong Kong

    Studies have shown that socioeconomic and environmental factors have direct/indirect influences on TB. This research focuses on TB prevalence of Hong Kong in relation to its compact urban development comprising of high-rise and high-density residential dwellings caused by rapid population growth and limited land resources. It has been postulated that occupants living on higher levels of a building would benefit from better ventilation and direct sunlight and thus less likely to contract infectious respiratory diseases.

    Reports & Research
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    December 2012
    Hong Kong
    Eastern Asia

    Doing business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 10 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency.