Guinea is characterized by high political and economic instability, which is one of the reasons why GDP in the country has been stagnant since 2002, with poverty increasing. Of the total land area, agricultural land comprises 51%, with 86% of the poor population living in rural areas and more than 70% of the population working in the agriculture sector.
The Constitution of Second Republic of Guinea guarantees its citizens the rights to private property. The 1992 Guinea Land Code recognizes vacant land as state property and it gives individuals the right to own land. However, the code is very rarely enforced in rural areas, and customary rules continue to govern land access and distribution, with the use of the land assigned to the founder’s family or descendants.
Land disputes in Guinea are frequent and involve numerous groups, from individuals and families to wider regional conflicts. The underlying reasons for this violence lay in the political and economic instability of the country, which has made led to an increase in competition for land in both rural and urban areas. Generally, conflict resolution is facilitated by a customary chief or through the mediation of a local agency.