Ghana

GHA

Ghana

Located in Western Africa, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Agriculture is a major driver of the economy, accounting for one-third of GDP, alongside gold and cocoa. Approximately 68% of Ghana’s land is used for agriculture and 15% is used as permanent natural pastures.

In 2003, Ghana launched a major land reform project aimed at improving land registration, institutional capacity building, land dispute resolution and the harmonization of statutory and customary systems governing land. Under the country’s mixed system of English common law and customary law, land is governed under overlapping customary and formal land rights regimes. The vast majority of land is held informally under customary tenure, while approximately 20% of land in Ghana is officially owned by the state. In recent years, tensions and conflicts over land have been exacerbated by the expansion of mining and bio fuel cultivation. While women have legal rights to own and inherit property, in practice under customary law their rights are greatly restricted and they themselves do not own land.

Main issues: tensions between customary and formal land rights regimes; pastoralists’ rights; women’s land rights; legal protections associated with compulsory land acquisitions; insecurity of rural people’s land rights.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Indicators

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
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    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    21 March 2017

     

    Ghana has made a strong case at the United Nations for the economic empowerment of women in the cocoa industry.

    At an event on the sidelines of the on-going 61st Session of the Commission on Status of Women (CSW) at the UN Headquarters in New York, it became clear that gender inequalities limit economic productivity, efficiency and undermines the development agenda.

    8 March 2017

    The Ministry of Land and Natural Resources is advocating the prioritisation of gender and land rights for equitable development.

    In a speech read on his behalf at the opening of a two-day orientation workshop for gender officers involved in land administration and representatives of civil society organisations (CSO) with focus on women’s land right, the Minister of Lands and Natural Resources, Mr John -Peter Amewu, said that was because gender incorporation had been on the development agenda of the country.

    Latest Blog

    By Marian Amissah-Ocran

    First, Maame Kraba was diagnosed with HIV. Shortly thereafter, her husband died of the disease. For Maame, a young mother of two children living in Western Region, Ghana, her husband’s death marked an abrupt change in her family’s circumstances, one that would put her rights to land in jeopardy.

    In Ghana, land is an indispensable asset. It’s a source of livelihood and social identity, and men and women should have equal opportunities to benefit from it. But when entrenched patriarchy tips the power scales, and corruption reinforces cultural norms, the impact on women can be devastating.

    A recent survey reveals that one in three Ghanaians have been asked to pay a bribe for land-related services in recent years. The study was done by the Ghana Integrity Initiative, the local chapter of Transparency International in Ghana.

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 213
    Ghanaian cocoa farmer establishing specially-approved farm boundary pillars under the guidance of a Landmapp field agent (the pillar will be mounted with cement after mapping). Courtesy: Landmapp (www.landmapp.net)
    Reports & Research
    April 2017

    The Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG), with support from the World Cocoa Foundation (WCF) the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), performed the Ghana Land Tenure Baseline Survey, the first of its kind survey of tenure rights among cocoa farmers in Ghana. CRIG surveyed almost 1,800 cocoa farmers operating 3,900 cocoa plots regarding various land tenure issues within customary sharecropping arrangements and on owner-managed land. This report describes the findings from the Survey.

    Journal Articles & Books
    June 2010

    La république du Ghana, l'une des démocraties africaines les plus stables, fait face à une surexploitation continue de ses ressources naturelles résultant en d'énormes pertes financières et de graves implications pour les populations pauvres. Le projet « Forêts tropicales et adaptation au changement climatique », financé par l'Union européenne, tente d'identifier des instruments appropriés pour le financement de mesures d'adaptation au changement climatique. L'un de ces outils de financement pourrait être le paiement pour services environnementaux ou PSE.

    Journal Articles & Books
    June 2013

    Representing 30 per cent of Ghana’s formal trade in maize, the Techiman market serves as the main cereals trade platform within the country and the sub-region. However, its role in the region’s economic development is threatened by several shortcomings. The Municipal Assembly and the Techiman traders have therefore launched an innovative public-private initiative to upgrade the maize market infrastructure.