Ethiopia

ETH

Ethiopia

Located in Eastern Africa, north of Kenya, Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country that is home to nine ethnically based states and two self-governing administrations. The economy is largely based on agriculture, with over 80% of the population engaged in the production of crops and livestock. With a growing population of over 80 million people, Ethiopia is also the most populous landlocked country in the world. On average farm sizes are small, with more than 85% of farming households on less than 2 hectares.

Historically, land governance in Ethiopia has been marked by significant control by the state over the allocation and use of land, as well as different approaches to the distribution of rural land implemented under various regimes. This has led to a lack of access to land and to insecure land tenure for the rural poor, particularly peasants, pastoralists, women and others who depend on land and other natural resources for their livelihoods.

Land certification initiatives have been expanded to millions of households nationwide generally with positive results, though critics call for greater measures to enhance tenure security and stimulate greater economic investments at the local level.

Some of the main land-related issues in the country include: improving land tenure security for smallholder farmers, pastoralists and women; coordination and harmonization among different institutions involved in land governance; greater transparency related to land leases to foreign investors.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Indicators

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    3 May 2017

     

    ADDIS ABABA (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Aworar Meka had been living and working at the Reppi rubbish dump in Addis Ababa for only one month when tragedy struck.

    A giant landslide at the 50-year-old dump, the Ethiopian capital's only landfill site, hit his neighborhood on March 11, destroying dozens of homes and killing at least 115 people.

    Meka was one of the lucky ones; the 28-year-old, his wife, and young son survived. Their home, a makeshift tent made of tarpaulin and corrugated iron, narrowly avoided being crushed.

    31 March 2017

     

    its4land is an EU-financed project to assist Kenya, Rwanda and Ethiopia in mapping land tenure more quickly, cheaply and transparently. It will end in three years’ time; right now, the Africans and Europeans are in the phase of needs assessment. The focus is not on technical requirements, but on operational priorities and managerial context. The first results indicate that low-cost geospatial technologies will be helpful, not least because they also benefit priorities other than improving cadastral services.

    By Desta Gebrehiwot
    Date: November 15th 2016
    Source: AllAfrica.com / The Ethiopian Herald

    The United Nations International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) stressed the need for rehabilitating dry lands in order to cope with the negative impacts of climate change, land degradation and drought.

    By: Justus Wanzala
    Date: November 11th 2016
    Source: AllAfrica.com / Ethiopian Herald

    ANALYSIS

    Land degradation already affects millions of people, bringing biodiversity loss, reduced availability of clean water, food insecurity and greater vulnerability to the harsh impacts of climate change.

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 972
    Cover photo
    Journal Articles & Books
    July 2015

    Land is a cross-cutting theme in most contemporary development challenges. Contemporary literature shows that land governance benefits the broader administration and governance of society. Tools enabling evaluation of land governance, however, are often focuses on national or supranational levels. Ethiopia provides a case in point: rapid urbanization and urban poverty are an issue; however, limited studies assess urban land governance from a multi-stakeholder perspective. Citizens and government representatives at different levels are the sources of information.

    Cover photo
    Journal Articles & Books
    January 2015

    Large scale land acquisition is a buzzword of the day in the world, more so in Ethiopia. The issue is indeed polarizing, in one hand it is dubbed as land grab and seen as ultimate scramble for land. On the other hand, it is often depicted as key to development, technology transfer and boost in productivity of an otherwise idle land available in Ethiopian lowlands, or somewhere else.

    Cover photo
    Journal Articles & Books
    January 2015

     Peri-urban areas in Ethiopia like that of other African countries are places where much of urban growth is taking place and as a result the competition for land between agriculture and nonagriculture (urban built-up property) is intense. It is there that new properties and property rights emerge and at the same time the existing traditional or customary rights may also disappear or dissolve. This study has attempted to assess and demonstrate the process of built-up property formation process in the transitional peri-urban areas of Ethiopia.

    Reports & Research
    December 2007

    Food availability, access, stability and utilization are all part of the multi-dimensional nature of food security. The “availability” aspect, discussed here, refers to the availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or inputs.

    Reports & Research
    December 2016

    This report uses data from a two-year impact evaluation to analyse the impact of the Ethiopia Social Cash Transfer Pilot Programme (SCTPP) on household behaviour and decision-making, including agricultural production and other income-generating activities, labour supply, the accumulation of productive assets, access to credit and food security.

    Journal Articles & Books
    September 2016

    This paper assesses past trends in agricultural land and labour productivity, as a test whether it is feasible to meet the SDG target 2.3, namely doubling productivity and incomes of smallholders within a 15-year time span, if history were to serve as a guide. The target implies agricultural productivity would need to increase by 4.6% per year on average during 2015-2030. Available country-level data on land productivity (1961-2012) and labour productivity (1980-2012) for 140 countries shows that past trends fall well short of the desired pace of productivity growth.