Egypt

EGY

Egypt

Egypt has a population of about 80 million people who live and work in only 4% of the country, concentrated along the Nile River. Although land is distributed relatively equitably, agricultural land is scarce and the high level of population growth has reduced land per capita. With 57% of the total population living in rural areas and 29% of the total labor force working in the agriculture sector, agriculture accounts for 14% of the country’s total GDP.

The Egyptian civil code adopted legislation based on old Egyptian codes, Sharia Law, as well as European and American laws and regulations. In 1952, Law No. 178 set forth the principles for land distribution, which limited the total amount of land per household to 84 hectares and redistributed excess holdings to poor rural households.  Law No.96 of 1992, altered some of these provisions to address rent increases and eliminated the permanent and inheritable rights of tenants.  Customary law is recognized, but claims based on customary rights can be presented only by individuals. Tribes or clans are excluded from these claims. Customary rights were recently partially recognized in desert lands. In 1969, the state nationalized all unregistered land and made it available for individuals or private companies.

In Egypt, land disputes predominately concern contested land ownership and inheritance claims, contested land boundaries and access to natural resources, water in particular. Land disputes are generally adjudicated by the courts according to formal laws, customs or Islamic Law. The courts are often inaccessible to the rural poor because bringing a case before the courts implies an expensive process and due to the influence of police and landowners who are said to block rural tenants from accessing the courts. 

Source of the narrative

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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
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    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    Source: New Jersey Herald
    ​Author: Haggag Salama

    LUXOR, Egypt (AP) — Hundreds of Egypt's ethnic minority Nubians have blocked a main road in the country's south to protest the government's plan to sell land they claim to be their ancestral territory.

    Monday's protest, on the road between the city of Aswan and the Abu Simbel archaeological site, came after police last weekend prevented a group of Nubians from returning to their land.

    A girl farms the land during the rainy season outside Gereida, Sudan, July 25, 2012. (photo by REUTERS/Albert Gonzalez Farran/UNAMID)  Read more: http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ja/originals/2015/08/egypt-sudan-agriculture-irrigation-cooperation-blue-nile

    CAIRO — Amid Egypt’s water scarcity, which threatens to worsen the country’s food shortage, Cairo is working to form agricultural alliances outside its borders. The efforts — which have been in place as limited experiments since the 1980s under Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak — include sending Egyptian farmers to cultivate land in Sudan and Congo, transfer their expertise to those countries and take advantage of the available water to cover the food needs of the Egyptian people.

    If you wander up and down one of the many irrigation canals in Egypt’s Nile Delta, you’ll see a wide range of crops being grown. Fields of swelling water melons sit alongside leafy greens. Twirling grape vines back on to rows of cucumbers. But why have the farmers chosen to grow one crop rather than another? Is it simply because they have differing access to water? A new study undertaken by IWMI and partners* sought to better understand the reasons for crop choice, and has come up with some surprising conclusions.

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    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 72
    Regulations
    January 2009

    This Ministerial Resolution Law is composed of 15 articles. Article 1 prohibits the establishment of buildings, facilities or the division of lands outside boundaries of urban cordons approved for villages and cities, with the exception of projects for agricultural production and livestock, as well as agricultural lands on which built private houses or facilities.

    National Policies
    June 2005

    In order to combat the desertification in Egypt, the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation together with the Desert Research Center have drafted this sectoral National Action Program (NAP), to be implemented in 5 years, as specified presenting the single projects.