Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of Congo has experienced a long war that has killed 3.5 million people and devastated the country. After the end of the conflict in 1997, the new government began rebuilding administrative systems and set new standards for good governance.  Congo’s population is composed of several ethnic groups, most of which are of Bantu origin. More than half of the population is rural, with agriculture accounting for 41% of the total GDP.

The Constitution of 2005 establishes that every person has right to enjoy the country’s natural resources and that the state is responsible for the equal distribution of these resources.  The General Property Law of 1973 gives the state the ownership of all land, also allowing for customary rights to regulate the use of unallocated land in rural areas. Despite the existence of land related legislation, customary law still governs a significant part of land in Congo.  The administration of land is assigned to traditional authorities, which usually cooperate with government officials.

Land disputes in the Congo are generally related to the control of land, the occupation of abandoned land and lack of known principles governing land tenure. Formal courts are entitled to resolve land related conflicts. However, these courts lack of financial means and basic human resources, and they also face interference from political and military leaders.  Traditional authorities may resolve land disputes, but they are weak in some rural areas and often they do not have the skills to deal with land issues in a post-conflict environment. 

English

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Indicators

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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  • Very Good Practice
  • Good Practice
  • Weak Practice
  • Very Weak Practice
  • Missing Value

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen. The indicators of this dataset assess national laws against Section 16 of the VGGT standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in the VGGTs.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Media

Latest News

DRC Launches DFID-Funded Land Governance Programme to support peace and stability

Goma, 23 November 2016 – UN-Habitat, in close collaboration with the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo, has launched a USD 12 million land programme that seeks to promote peace and stability.

Democratic Republic of Congo Land Grabs: Plantation Company Pressures Farming Communities to Cede Land Rights

Source: Global Research

Over the past few days, Feronia Inc., a Canadian-based company majority-owned by European and US development banks, has been pressuring local communities to sign a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that would endorse the company’s continued operation and expansion of oil palm plantations within their territories.

Latest Blog

In Rwanda, WfWI graduates have come together to form a Village Savings and Loan Association (VSLA) to create their own source of credit and savings to help them grow their businesses and move out of extreme poverty.

When Women's Rights Are Not Enough

Around the world, women in 155 countries face legal restrictions on the economic opportunities available to them, according to the recent World Bank Group's report Women, Business and the Law 2016, which highlights the challenges women face in the global economy and underscores the need for legal reform.

Latest Events

Towards Rights-Based Conservation in the Congo Basin

Monday, September 5, 2016

Location

Hawaiʻi Convention Center, UNDP, Room 314
1801 Kalākaua Av
96815 Honolulu , Hawaii
United States
Hawaii US

A presentation by the Rainforest Foundation UK and Réseau Ressources Naturelles (RRN).

 

To be sustainable, nature conservation must also support the rights, livelihoods and cultures of local communities. International conservation organisations recognise this, but have these good intentions been reflected in efforts to protect Africa’s rainforests?

Library

Displaying 1 - 6 of 145

From Risk and Conflict to Peace and Prosperity

Amid the realities of major political turbulence, there was growing recognition in 2016 that the land rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities are key to ensuring peace and prosperity, economic development, sound investment, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Despite equivocation by governments, a critical mass of influential investors and companies now recognize the market rationale for respecting community land rights.

Resource information

February 2017