Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of Congo has experienced a long war that has killed 3.5 million people and devastated the country. After the end of the conflict in 1997, the new government began rebuilding administrative systems and set new standards for good governance.  Congo’s population is composed of several ethnic groups, most of which are of Bantu origin. More than half of the population is rural, with agriculture accounting for 41% of the total GDP.

The Constitution of 2005 establishes that every person has right to enjoy the country’s natural resources and that the state is responsible for the equal distribution of these resources.  The General Property Law of 1973 gives the state the ownership of all land, also allowing for customary rights to regulate the use of unallocated land in rural areas. Despite the existence of land related legislation, customary law still governs a significant part of land in Congo.  The administration of land is assigned to traditional authorities, which usually cooperate with government officials.

Land disputes in the Congo are generally related to the control of land, the occupation of abandoned land and lack of known principles governing land tenure. Formal courts are entitled to resolve land related conflicts. However, these courts lack of financial means and basic human resources, and they also face interference from political and military leaders.  Traditional authorities may resolve land disputes, but they are weak in some rural areas and often they do not have the skills to deal with land issues in a post-conflict environment. 

Indicators

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit
Percentage

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit
PPP$ 2011

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Total funding for programmes still ongoing in January 2016 (US $).

Measurement unit
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing in January 2016

Measurement unit
Number

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Mapping

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Compare countries

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Infographics

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT)


Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Media

Latest News

2 July 2017
Democratic Republic of the Congo

Traditionally, women in the DRC gained shares in property through marriage, not inheritance. Today few realize that this custom contradicts the law, which codifies women’s rights to inherit land. In the North Kivu province, one organization is spreading awareness of the law and helping to resolve inheritance disputes.  

RUTSHURU, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO — When Salima Salumu’s mother died, she left a large plot of land for her children and ignited a conflict that is not unusual here in the North Kivu province.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Goma, 23 November 2016 – UN-Habitat, in close collaboration with the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo, has launched a USD 12 million land programme that seeks to promote peace and stability.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of Congo to disclose large-scale agricultural contracts

In partnership with the Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, documents will be available via a new online repository

Latest Blog

In Rwanda, WfWI graduates have come together to form a Village Savings and Loan Association (VSLA) to create their own source of credit and savings to help them grow their businesses and move out of extreme poverty.
Africa
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Global

Around the world, women in 155 countries face legal restrictions on the economic opportunities available to them, according to the recent World Bank Group's report Women, Business and the Law 2016, which highlights the challenges women face in the global economy and underscores the need for legal reform.

Latest Events

5 September 2016

Location

Hawaiʻi Convention Center, UNDP, Room 314
1801 Kalākaua Av
96815 Honolulu , Hawaii
United States
Hawaii US
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Congo

A presentation by the Rainforest Foundation UK and Réseau Ressources Naturelles (RRN).

 

To be sustainable, nature conservation must also support the rights, livelihoods and cultures of local communities. International conservation organisations recognise this, but have these good intentions been reflected in efforts to protect Africa’s rainforests?

Organizations

Library

Displaying 1 - 6 of 231
Reports & Research
March 2017
Brazil
Cambodia
Canada
Colombia
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Indonesia
Liberia
Madagascar
Malaysia
Mexico
Myanmar
Papua New Guinea
Peru
Russia

Global demand for timber, agricultural commodities, and extractives is a significant driver of deforestation worldwide. Transparent land-concessions data for these large-scale commercial activities are essential to understand drivers of forest loss, monitor environmental impacts of ongoing activities, and ensure efficient and sustainable allocation of land.

Reports & Research
February 2017
Brazil
China
Colombia
Democratic Republic of the Congo
India
Indonesia
Kenya
Peru
Senegal

Amid the realities of major political turbulence, there was growing recognition in 2016 that the land rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities are key to ensuring peace and prosperity, economic development, sound investment, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Despite equivocation by governments, a critical mass of influential investors and companies now recognize the market rationale for respecting community land rights.

Policy Papers & Briefs
Institutional & promotional materials
December 2016
Democratic Republic of the Congo

Promoting a peaceful and lasting resolution to land conflicts in a protracted crisis context through a fair and environmentally sensitive approach.

Reports & Research
December 2016
Burkina Faso
Equatorial Guinea
Kenya
Burundi
Namibia
Swaziland
Tonga
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Congo
Cameroon
Rwanda
South Africa
Central African Republic
Botswana
Sao Tome and Principe
Chad
Gabon
Africa

Meeting Name: African Forestry and Wildlife Commission
Meeting symbol/code: FO:AFWC/2016/4.1
Session: Sess. 20

Reports & Research
December 2016
Mauritius
Kenya
Zambia
Gambia
Mali
Burundi
Germany
Guinea-Bissau
Swaziland
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Guinea
Sierra Leone
Ethiopia
Comoros
Cameroon
Rwanda
Tanzania
Senegal
Chad
Gabon

Meeting Name: Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA)
Meeting symbol/code: CGRFA-16/17/Inf.11.1
Session: Sess. 16