Ivory Coast


Ivory Coast

Since its independence in 1960, Cote D’Ivoire experienced a long period of stability and economic growth thanks to the investments in the agricultural sector. However, in 1980 rapid population growth and internal migration from urban to rural areas increased the pressure on the management and distribution of natural resources, which gave rise to a series of conflicts over land. The 1999 Coup d’Etat exacerbated the situation, as conflicts and political instability spread, particularly in relation to the control of land.

The 2000 Constitution guarantees the right of property to all. In particular, since the colonial period, vacant land in Cote d’Ivoire is considered state property, while occupied land has been governed by the customary land tenure system. A decree of March 1967 confirms the customary laws regulating land, stating that land belongs to the person who makes it profitable. The Rural Land Plan of 1989 financed by the World Bank was the first attempt for the establishment of a secure system of land tenure through a survey identifying land rights and land use, the establishment of plots’ limits and the introduction of new methods for land registration. In 1998, the Rural Land Law was passed with the aim of transforming customary land rights into private property rights regulated by the state. The law did not reach its scope, as the vast majority of rural land in the country is still governed by customary practices.

Conflicts and violence in Cote d’Ivoire have been strongly related to land. When the economy started to slow down, people began migrating from urban to rural areas where migrants from different countries and cultures had moved to cultivate the land. This gave rise to land disputes, which are generally mediated by the heads of the villages, who are widely respected among people and they have proved to be more effective than the formal mechanisms of land disputes resolution envisaged by the rural Land Law. 

Source of the narrative

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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.


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    Displaying 1 - 6 of 56
    Reports & Research
    December 2001

    La présente publication «Situation des ressources génétiques forestières de la Côte d'Ivoire (Zone de Savanes)» est issue d’un rapport national présenté à l’Atelier sous-régional FAO/IPGRI/CIRAF sur la conservation, la gestion, l’utilisation durable et la mise en valeur des ressources génétiques forestières de la zone sahélienne (Ouagadougou, 22-24 sept. 1998).

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 1984

    This report presents the results of an exercise to model forest industry development in Liberia. It presents background information about Liberia and the forestry sector, then discusses the trends and projections in forest cover and production and trade of forest products. It suggests that forest resources will not be able to meet future demand for wood and recommends that forest plantations should be planted to meet this demand.

    Reports & Research
    December 2010

    This regional evaluation is based on discussions and outputs of the consultation meeting of Francophone Africa on the Voluntary guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure of land and other natural resources that was held in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso on 23-25 June 2010. The opinions expressed in this evaluation are those of the participants at the consultation meeting and do not necessarily reflect those of FAO.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2012
    Reports & Research
    December 2015

    FAO has a long history of partnership with the countries of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), providing policy advice, analysis and technical assistance in agriculture, livestock, fisheries, forestry, natural resources management and food security in its commitment to support resilient livelihoods and enhance food security. FAO collaborates with these countries at a global level, as well as at a regional level through a number of regional initiatives, and at a country level via the country programming framework agreed upon with national authorities.