China

Infographics

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT)


Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Media

Latest News

12 September 2017
China

BEIJING (Reuters) - China’s central government has approved a plan to extend a rural land reform pilot program by another year to the end of 2018, the Economic Information Daily reported on Tuesday citing sources at the Ministry of Land and Resources.

The land ministry’s pilot started in 2015 and is meant to develop mechanisms for rural land use rights to be transferred on markets, allowing rural residents to receive more of the benefits from their rights to land.

china agricultural land food security
30 August 2017
China

CHINA'S FOOD PRODUCTION has been increasing since the abolition of the agricultural tax-introduced more than a thousand years ago- in 2004. But food imports, too, have increased steadily and significantly in recent years. Southern Metropolis Daily commented on Monday:

china woman farmer
27 August 2017
China

The Party committee and government in Liaoning Province, northeast China, recently issued a document to steadily promote the implementation of rural collective property right system reform.

The document instructs officials to safeguard rural women's legitimate rights and interests in the process of identifying the membership of collective economic organizations.

china smog city
8 August 2017
China

Trans-Pacific View author Mercy Kuo regularly engages subject-matter experts, policy practitioners, and strategic thinkers across the globe for their diverse insights into U.S. Asia policy. This conversation with Dr. Spencer Cohen – Senior Economist at Community Attributes, a Seattle-based research consultancy, and former senior policy adviser for the Washington Economic Development Commission – is the 102nd in “The Trans-Pacific View Insight Series.” 

In which areas has China’s market reforms shown productive results?

Latest Blog

Photo CC Steve McCurry
Ecuador
China
Myanmar

I wouldn’t say Chinese investors are not trying to take social responsibility seriously, but they must understand that the meaning of responsible investment is much more than a few corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs.

This map draws on Chinese infrastructure project location data from AidData and forest cover loss data from Hansen et al. (2013).
Cambodia
China
Tanzania

Conservationists and environmental advocacy groups have warned that the nature, pace and scale of Chinese-funded infrastructure projects in the developing world may lead to unintended environmental consequences, especially in so-called “ecological hotspots.” Until now, there has been no systematic, large-scale evidence that confronts the causal claim that Chinese-funded development projects have

Figure 1. A typical smoggy day in Beijing, taken at noon on 11/14/2015. Low-rise buildings at the front are part of a village within city. Image Credit: Yanfei Pu
China

Jun Yang
Tsinghua University, China

In the last three decades, urbanization in China moved ahead at an unprecedented speed. Between 1978 and 2014, the urbanization rate increased from 17.9% to 53.7% (Chinese Government Network, 2015 [In Chinese]). During that time, more than five hundred million people moved from rural areas into cities. Rapid urbanization, along with industrialization, has propelled social and economic development not only in China, but globally as well.

Organizations

Library

Displaying 1 - 6 of 1731
Reports & Research
December 2017
China
Myanmar

International borders and associated borderlands—especially as viewed at the national and international scales, and via regional and global-scale maps—are generally thought of as being primarily governed by national governments. In reality, however, national borders and associated borderlands are complex and varied spaces, ones that are governed not only through national laws and regulations, but also an array of policies and localized practices, both formal and informal, conceived and implemented by government agencies and other non-government entities operating at various scales.

CIAT in Asia cover image
Institutional & promotional materials
April 2017
Asia
China
Cambodia
Laos
Myanmar
Philippines
Vietnam
Southern Asia
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Nepal

With more than 60 percent of Asian population either directly or indirectly relying on agriculture for livelihood, agriculture remains key to uplifting lives of many people in the region, as well as to providing sufficient and nutritious food for all.

In Asia, CIAT undertakes scientific research enabling smallholder farmers, agri-food businesses, and national governments to use smart technologies and innovations and make evidence-based decisions, towards achieving profitability, environmental sustainability and resiliency in agriculture.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
March 2017
China
Eastern Asia
Oceania

Chinese municipalities have developed a large stock of capital assets during a period of rapid growth and urbanization, but have yet to modernize asset management practices. Cities face challenges such as premature decline of fixed assets and spiking liabilities related to operating and maintaining assets. This paper evaluates the asset management practices in three selected small cities and towns in China, using a benchmarking assessment tool followed by an in-depth field assessment.

Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China cover image
Journal Articles & Books
February 2017
China

Recent expansion of the scale of human activities poses severe threats to Earth’s life-support systems. Increasingly, protected areas (PAs) are expected to serve dual goals: protect biodiversity and secure ecosystem services. We report a nationwide assessment for China, quantifying the provision of threatened species habitat and four key regulating services—water retention, soil retention, sandstorm prevention, and carbon sequestration—in nature reserves (the primary category of PAs in China).

Reports & Research
February 2017
Brazil
China
Colombia
Democratic Republic of the Congo
India
Indonesia
Kenya
Peru
Senegal

Amid the realities of major political turbulence, there was growing recognition in 2016 that the land rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities are key to ensuring peace and prosperity, economic development, sound investment, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Despite equivocation by governments, a critical mass of influential investors and companies now recognize the market rationale for respecting community land rights.