BRA

Brazil

Brazil

English

In Brazil, inequality of land distribution, inadequate access to land by the poor, and insecure tenure are contributing factors to land degradation, destruction of forests, rural poverty, violence, human rights abuses, exploitation of rural workers, and migration to crime-ridden slums and shantytowns in urban areas. In spite of numerous programs to facilitate access to land, issues remain, particularly for landless peasants.

Brazil is an economic giant, with one of the world‘s 10 highest gross domestic product (GDP). In recent years, sound macroeconomic policies have brought about stability and growth; and innovative social programs and inclusive economic growth have reduced both poverty and income inequality. The World Bank reports reductions in poverty (defined as US $2 per day measured in purchasing-power parity terms) from 20% to 7% of the population, and in income inequality (as measured by the Gini index) from 0.596 to 0.54 between 2004 and 2009. Despite these achievements, inequality remains at relatively high levels for a middle-income country (World Bank 2010).

A significant part of Brazil‘s economy relies on the use of its immense natural resource base. As a consequence, Brazil faces the challenge of productively harnessing its resources and realizing the benefits of agricultural growth while still ensuring adequate environmental protection and achieving development that will be sustainable. Brazil possesses 12% of the world‘s reserve of available freshwater. Geographically, these resources are extremely unevenly distributed, with nearly three quarters concentrated in the sparsely populated Amazon River Basin. Brazil‘s wetlands are under pressure, and water pollution and availability issues exist in southern Brazil. With support from international donors to govern its freshwater resources more efficiently, Brazil has managed to increase water supply and sanitation coverage to poorer sections of the population, but affordability remains a question. Brazil hosts extensive forests, grasslands, and wetland ecosystems. Despite legal provisions to provide protection to an estimated 3.7 million square kilometers of public and private lands, there are significant human and development pressures on all of these areas. Governance responsibilities are spread throughout Brazil‘s legal framework for the environment and forest areas, resulting in disputes between various state- and federal-level institutions.

Brazil has one of the largest and most well-developed mining sectors in the world. However, it is still working to clarify precise roles and responsibilities of the federal, state, and municipal governments in administering the mining sector to avoid confusion and conflict. Laws and policy on small- and medium-sized mining companies also need clarification. Although artisanal miners are recognized in the Constitution, the laws and policies remain vague regarding their rights over certain minerals (e.g., industrial minerals). Also, mineral deposits often lie within indigenous lands, creating conflicts, sometimes violent, between indigenous communities and artisanal miners.

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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen. The indicators of this dataset assess national laws against Section 16 of the VGGT standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in the VGGTs.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    Brazil pushes on with plan to open farmland sales to foreigners

    Thursday, February 16, 2017

    Brazil says it is pushing ahead with plans to change the law and let foreigners buy farmland, in a move widely backed by investors and opposed by land rights campaigners.

    "We will announce the changes in the next 30 days," Brazilian Finance Minister Henrique Meirelles said on Wednesday night in an interview with GloboNews television.

    Agribusiness is one of the fastest growing sectors of Brazil's economy and Meirelles said its continued success requires more investment.

    Título de terra leva dignidade à população rural de Banabuiú (Brasil)

    Sunday, February 5, 2017

    Na manhã desta sexta-feira (03), a Secretaria do Desenvolvimento Agrário (SDA) realizou a entrega de 217 títulos de terra e assinou a ordem de serviço para instalação de sistema de abastecimento d´água com módulos sanitários em Banabuiú, município localizado a 233 km de distância da capital Fortaleza

    Latest Blog

    Latest Events

    III Seminário Internacional Desenvolvimento Econômico e Governança de Terras

    7 June 2017 to 9 June 2017

    Location

    Universidade Estadual de Campinas
    Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz - Barão Geraldo, Campinas - SP, Brasil
    13083-970 São Paulo
    Brazil
    BR

    O tema para 2017 será a Regularização Fundiária



    O Grupo de Trabalho em Governança de Terras tem a honra de apresentar a III edição do seminário que esse ano o tema principal será Regularização Fundiária. A data programada para o evento é: 07, 08 e 09 de junho de 2017.

    Para ver a programação e mais informações clique aqui.

    II Simpósio de Ciência do Solo: Interfaces, desafios e Inovações

    9 May 2017 to 12 May 2017

    Location

    Universidade Federal de Lavras
    Av. Doutor Sylvio Menicucci, 1001 - Kennedy, Lavras - MG,
    37200-000 Brasil Minas Gerais
    Brazil
    BR

    O ano de 2015 foi considerado pela ONU como Ano Internacional dos Solos. Por este nobre motivo e pelo aprimoramento do conhecimento das necessidades de nossos solos, alunos de graduação, pós-graduação e professores do Departamento de Ciência do Solo (DCS) da Universidade Federal de Lavras iniciaram e se prontificaram para a organização do “I Simpósio de Ciência do Solo: Funcionalidades e uso responsável dos recursos do solo” nesta universidade, que se realizou entre os dias 30 de novembro a 4 de dezembro de 2015.

    Debate

    Collective property in South America, challenges and prospects

    23 October 2016 to 25 November 2016
    Facilitators
    Alejandro Diez
    gonzalocolque
    Sergio Coronado
    Juan Pablo Chumacero

    Generally, most rural land in the world has been in the hands of local peasant communities and indigenous peoples under customary land tenure systems; historically although, land ownership in rural areas, and natural resources contained in it, have been a source of tension between different actors with different ways to understand and take ownership. In this conflict of interest, usually rural and indigenous communities with collective forms of property, have lost out.

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    Unidades de Conservação mais desmatadas da Amazônia legal (2012-2015)

    As Unidades de Conservação cobrem 22% da Amazônia Legal e são uma estratégia eficaz para conservar animais, plantas e serviços ambientais, conter o desmatamento e manter o equilíbrio climático do Planeta. Contudo, as taxas de desmatamento em UCs vêm aumentando – em 2015 já superava a de 2012 em 79% –, assim como sua participação no desmatamento total da Amazônia, que passou de 6% em 2008 para 12% em 2015.

    Resource information

    March 2017

    Biomas brasileiros e a teia da vida

    Conscientes do colapso civilizacional com que nos defrontamos como espécie humana e inspirados pela Campanha da Fraternidade deste ano, cujo tema é Fraternidade: Biomas Brasileiros e Defesa da Vida e que tem como lema Cultivar e Guardar a Criação (Gn 2,15), a edição de número 500 da revista IHU On-Line debate o tema que também é assunto central do ciclo de conferências promovido pelo Instituto Humanitas Unisinos – IHU a partir do dia 15 de março até o final do mês de junho deste ano.

    Resource information

    March 2017

    Olhares Agroecológicos: Análise econômico-ecológica de agroecossistemas em sete territórios brasileiros

    A ideia de produzir este livro teve origem em um esforço compartilhado por organizações e redes vinculadas à Articulação Nacional de Agroecologia (ANA) de sistematizar evidências dos benefícios do enfoque agroecológico na gestão técnico-econômica da agricultura familiar, aqui apreendida em suas variadas formas de organização produtiva e expressão identitária.

    Resource information

    March 2017

    Método de análise econômico-ecológica de agroecossistemas

    Este documento apresenta um método de análise econômico-ecológica
    de agroecossistemas. O desenvolvimento do método se fundou
    na necessidade de dar visibilidade a relações econômicas, ecológicas
    e políticas que singularizam os modos de produção e de vida da agricultura
    familiar, povos e comunidades tradicionais e que têm sido
    historicamente ocultadas ou descaracterizadas pela teoria econômica
    convencional. As contundentes evidências empíricas do fracasso dos

    Resource information

    March 2017

    Agricultura Familiar Brasileira: Desafios e Perspectivas de Futuro

    A Agricultura Brasileira se destaca entre as maiores do mundo e representa uma fonte de alimentos e de matéria prima para muitos países. Nela estão presentes diversos modos de fazer Agricultura, entre os quais a produção Agrícola Familiar, encontrada em extensas e importantes regiões do país. A agricultura familiar no Brasil é crescentemente uma forma social de produção reconhecida pela sociedade brasileira, por suas contribuições materiais e imateriais.

    Resource information

    March 2017