Brazil

BRA

Brazil

In Brazil, inequality of land distribution, inadequate access to land by the poor, and insecure tenure are contributing factors to land degradation, destruction of forests, rural poverty, violence, human rights abuses, exploitation of rural workers, and migration to crime-ridden slums and shantytowns in urban areas. In spite of numerous programs to facilitate access to land, issues remain, particularly for landless peasants.

Brazil is an economic giant, with one of the world‘s 10 highest gross domestic product (GDP). In recent years, sound macroeconomic policies have brought about stability and growth; and innovative social programs and inclusive economic growth have reduced both poverty and income inequality. The World Bank reports reductions in poverty (defined as US $2 per day measured in purchasing-power parity terms) from 20% to 7% of the population, and in income inequality (as measured by the Gini index) from 0.596 to 0.54 between 2004 and 2009. Despite these achievements, inequality remains at relatively high levels for a middle-income country (World Bank 2010).

A significant part of Brazil‘s economy relies on the use of its immense natural resource base. As a consequence, Brazil faces the challenge of productively harnessing its resources and realizing the benefits of agricultural growth while still ensuring adequate environmental protection and achieving development that will be sustainable. Brazil possesses 12% of the world‘s reserve of available freshwater. Geographically, these resources are extremely unevenly distributed, with nearly three quarters concentrated in the sparsely populated Amazon River Basin. Brazil‘s wetlands are under pressure, and water pollution and availability issues exist in southern Brazil. With support from international donors to govern its freshwater resources more efficiently, Brazil has managed to increase water supply and sanitation coverage to poorer sections of the population, but affordability remains a question. Brazil hosts extensive forests, grasslands, and wetland ecosystems. Despite legal provisions to provide protection to an estimated 3.7 million square kilometers of public and private lands, there are significant human and development pressures on all of these areas. Governance responsibilities are spread throughout Brazil‘s legal framework for the environment and forest areas, resulting in disputes between various state- and federal-level institutions.

Brazil has one of the largest and most well-developed mining sectors in the world. However, it is still working to clarify precise roles and responsibilities of the federal, state, and municipal governments in administering the mining sector to avoid confusion and conflict. Laws and policy on small- and medium-sized mining companies also need clarification. Although artisanal miners are recognized in the Constitution, the laws and policies remain vague regarding their rights over certain minerals (e.g., industrial minerals). Also, mineral deposits often lie within indigenous lands, creating conflicts, sometimes violent, between indigenous communities and artisanal miners.

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    7 June 2017
    Brazil

    Guarani-Kaiowá leader Ladio Veron is touring Europe seeking international support to end attacks and killings of indigenous people, land theft and environmental harm in Brazil.

    12 June 2017
    Brazil

    On December 22, 2016, President Michel Temer revised a law that specifically regularizes urban and rural land owned by the federal government, notably eliminating requirements for upgrading infrastructure on those lands. The revision was passed by the Senate on May 24 without consulting affected groups, experts, or representative bodies of land regularization.

    2 June 2017
    Global
    Brazil

    On 31 May 2017, The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) thanks to the support of the Nando Peretti Foundation and along with fellow hosts Mr Xabier Benito Ziluaga MEP (GUE/NGL), Mr Urmas Paet MEP (ALDE), Mr Francisco Assis MEP (S&D), Mr Ignazio Corrao MEP (EFDD), Pier Antonio Panzeri MEP (S&D) and Mr Pascal Durand MEP (Greens/EFA) organised a conference entitled “The Guarani-Kaiowá and the Assault on Indigenous Rights in Brazil” at the European Parliament in Brussels.

    5 June 2017
    Brazil

    SAO PAULO, Brazil – On May 29 the NGO SOS Mata Atlântica and the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais released their annual report on the Atlantic Forest with some worrying results. The report shows that between 2015 and 2016, more than 29,000 hectares (71,660 acres) of native forests were lost. That’s a 57.7 percent increase over the previous year.

    Latest Blog

    Traditionally, small ‘Pygmy’ communities moved frequently through forest territories, gathering a vast range of forest products, collecting and exchanging goods with neighboring settled societies. © Selcen Kucukustel/Atlas
    Global
    Brazil
    Colombia
    Malaysia
    India

    By  Lewis Evans, Survival International

    For Earth Day (April 22), Survival International reveals some of the amazing ways in which tribal peoples are the best conservationists and guardians of the natural world:

    1. The Baka “Pygmies” have over 15 words for elephant

    The Baka people know so much about elephants, they have different words for them according to their sex, age and even temperament.

    When indigenous peoples have access and rights to their lands, nature and people are better off Image: REUTERS/Roosevelt Cassio
    Bolivia
    Brazil
    Colombia
    Global

    By Gina Cosentino, Social Development Specialist, World Bank and Climate Investment Funds

    Everything old is new again, at least when it comes to searching for workable and proven solutions to addressing climate change. Indigenous peoples have developed, over time, innovative climate-smart practices rooted in traditional knowledge and their relationship with nature.

    Latest Events

    27 November 2017 to 30 November 2017

    Location

    Teresina, Piauí, Brasil, 64000-000
    Piauí
    Brazil
    BR
    Brazil

    A Comissão Organizadora da IV Reunião Nordestina de Ciência do Solo já definiu a data do evento, que ocorrerá entre os dias 27 a 30/11/2017 na cidade de Teresina, PI. Segundo o Coordenador do evento, o Dr. Henrique Antunes de Souza, da Embrapa Meio-Norte, nos próximos dias será disponibilizado o site do evento contendo informações sobre programação, preço das inscrições, modelo de resumo, normas de submissão, etc. A seguir são apresentados os membros que compõem a Comissão Organizadora da IV RNCS:

     

    Coordenador

    23 August 2017 to 25 August 2017

    Location

    Curitiba, Brasil Curitiba
    Brazil
    BR
    Latin America and the Caribbean
    Brazil
    Portugal
    Spain

    Nos dias 23,24 e 25 de agosto do presente ano, levar-se-á a cabo o TERCEIRO CONGRESSO IBEROAMERICANO DE SOLO URBANO na cidade de Curitiba, Brasil, com o tema “O solo na nova agenda urbana”, organizado de maneira conjunta pelo Colégio Mexiquence AC, a Universidade Federal do Paraná, a Universidade Pontifícia Católica do Paraná e a Universidade Positivo.

    11 August 2017 to 11 October 2017

    Location

    Av. Presidente Vargas, 417/ 8º 20.071-003 – Rio de Janeiro – RJ
    2224-8577 Rio de Janeiro
    Brazil
    BR
    Brazil

    O Comitê Executivo da Rede Brasileira de Pesquisa em Soberania e Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional tem a satisfação de confirmar a realização do III Encontro Nacional de Pesquisa em SSAN nos dias 08, 09 e 10 de Novembro de 2017, na cidade de Curitiba (PR), em local ainda a ser escolhido entre as opções existentes.

    A programação do Encontro ainda está sendo finalizada, porém, podemos antecipar as seguintes informações:

    7 June 2017 to 9 June 2017

    Location

    Universidade Estadual de Campinas
    Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz - Barão Geraldo, Campinas - SP, Brasil
    13083-970 São Paulo
    Brazil
    BR
    Brazil

    O tema para 2017 será a Regularização Fundiária



    O Grupo de Trabalho em Governança de Terras tem a honra de apresentar a III edição do seminário que esse ano o tema principal será Regularização Fundiária. A data programada para o evento é: 07, 08 e 09 de junho de 2017.

    Para ver a programação e mais informações clique aqui.

    Debate

    23 October 2016 to 25 November 2016
    Closed
    Facilitators
    Alejandro Diez
    gonzalocolque
    Sergio Coronado
    Juan Pablo Chumacero
    Latin America and the Caribbean
    South America
    Argentina
    Bolivia
    Brazil
    Chile
    Colombia
    Ecuador
    Guyana
    Paraguay
    Peru
    Suriname
    Venezuela

    Generally, most rural land in the world has been in the hands of local peasant communities and indigenous peoples under customary land tenure systems; historically although, land ownership in rural areas, and natural resources contained in it, have been a source of tension between different actors with different ways to understand and take ownership. In this conflict of interest, usually rural and indigenous communities with collective forms of property, have lost out.

    Partners

    Imazon

    Imazon

    Articulação Nacional de Agroecologia

    ANA

    Agricultura Familiar e Agroecologia

    AS-PTA

    Secretaría General Iberoamericana

    SESGIB

    La Red de Coordinación de Políticas Agropecuarias

    REDPA

    Cumbres de las Américas

    Federação de Órgãos para Assistência Social e Educacional

    FASE

    Sistema Económico Latinoamericano y del Caribe

    SELA

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 768
    Journal Articles & Books
    June 2015

    Mudanças importantes ocorreram no cenário político institucional e nas dinâmicas sociais nos últimos vinte anos no Brasil. O marco inicial destas transformações pode ser fixado a partir da promulgação da nova Constituição que rege o tecido jurídico e societário brasileiro na atualidade. Todavia, fixar uma marca temporal é sempre complicado quando se trata de entender os pro‑ cessos sociais e suas mudanças, especialmente quando sabemos das interfaces entre passado e presente.

    Journal Articles & Books
    April 2016

    A Amazônia brasileira, que detém grande parte da maior floresta tropical do mundo, está ameaçada pela exploração descontrolada de seus recursos naturais. Mais de 750.000 km² de florestas já foram desmatados por atividades econômicas em escala industrial como a produção agropecuária, mineração, exploração ilegal de madeira e grandes projetos de infraestrutura, especialmente usinas hidrelétricas –, colocando em risco a biodiversidade incomparável da região, forçando o deslocamento de comunidades tradicionais e povos indígenas de suas terras e agravando as mudanças do clima global.

    Peer-reviewed publication
    July 2016

    The production of soy is one of the most important economic activities in the Brazilian Amazon, though the expansion of this industry has come at the cost of huge swaths of forest. Since 2006, the private firms that buy and trade soybeans globally have assumed a key role in ensuring that soy producers comply with forest protection policies, including the Soy Moratorium and public policies banning the use of illegally deforested land.

    Peer-reviewed publication
    July 2016

    Brazil’s Cerrado is a highly diverse ecosystem and it provides critical habitat for many species. Cerrado habitats have suffered significant degradation and decline over the past decades due to expansion of cash crops and livestock farming across South America. Approximately 1,800,000 km2 of the Cerrado remain in Brazil, but detailed maps and conservation assessments of the Cerrado are lacking. We developed a land cover classification for the Cerrado, focusing on the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, which may also be used to map critical habitat for endangered species.

    Peer-reviewed publication
    December 2013

    Ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation can ameliorate problems common to urban environments while improving the quality of life of urban residents. Much research in urban ecology has analyzed urban environmental dynamics in the global north; rapidly urbanizing areas in the global south have not received commensurate attention. The land cover dynamics of mid-sized cities in the global south remain under-explored in particular.