Brazil

BRA

Brazil

In Brazil, inequality of land distribution, inadequate access to land by the poor, and insecure tenure are contributing factors to land degradation, destruction of forests, rural poverty, violence, human rights abuses, exploitation of rural workers, and migration to crime-ridden slums and shantytowns in urban areas. In spite of numerous programs to facilitate access to land, issues remain, particularly for landless peasants.

Brazil is an economic giant, with one of the world‘s 10 highest gross domestic product (GDP). In recent years, sound macroeconomic policies have brought about stability and growth; and innovative social programs and inclusive economic growth have reduced both poverty and income inequality. The World Bank reports reductions in poverty (defined as US $2 per day measured in purchasing-power parity terms) from 20% to 7% of the population, and in income inequality (as measured by the Gini index) from 0.596 to 0.54 between 2004 and 2009. Despite these achievements, inequality remains at relatively high levels for a middle-income country (World Bank 2010).

A significant part of Brazil‘s economy relies on the use of its immense natural resource base. As a consequence, Brazil faces the challenge of productively harnessing its resources and realizing the benefits of agricultural growth while still ensuring adequate environmental protection and achieving development that will be sustainable. Brazil possesses 12% of the world‘s reserve of available freshwater. Geographically, these resources are extremely unevenly distributed, with nearly three quarters concentrated in the sparsely populated Amazon River Basin. Brazil‘s wetlands are under pressure, and water pollution and availability issues exist in southern Brazil. With support from international donors to govern its freshwater resources more efficiently, Brazil has managed to increase water supply and sanitation coverage to poorer sections of the population, but affordability remains a question. Brazil hosts extensive forests, grasslands, and wetland ecosystems. Despite legal provisions to provide protection to an estimated 3.7 million square kilometers of public and private lands, there are significant human and development pressures on all of these areas. Governance responsibilities are spread throughout Brazil‘s legal framework for the environment and forest areas, resulting in disputes between various state- and federal-level institutions.

Brazil has one of the largest and most well-developed mining sectors in the world. However, it is still working to clarify precise roles and responsibilities of the federal, state, and municipal governments in administering the mining sector to avoid confusion and conflict. Laws and policy on small- and medium-sized mining companies also need clarification. Although artisanal miners are recognized in the Constitution, the laws and policies remain vague regarding their rights over certain minerals (e.g., industrial minerals). Also, mineral deposits often lie within indigenous lands, creating conflicts, sometimes violent, between indigenous communities and artisanal miners.

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    15 August 2017
    Brazil

     

    In Brazil, rural agricultural workers and land reform beneficiaries could be hardest hit by President Michel Temer's austerity policies. 

    15 August 2017
    Brazil
    • Last week, indigenous organizations and civil society bodies demonstrated widely against what they see as the Brazilian government’s on going moves to reduce Indian land rights, and to demand the government open a dialogue with indigenous representatives.
    • Of greatest concern is President Temer’s recommendation to approve the “marco temporal” a 1988 cut-off date for Indian occupation of traditional lands.
    Brazil indigenous peoples protest
    4 August 2017
    Brazil

    Peasants, small farmers, and indigenous people are being massacred over land rights and environmental conflicts across rural Brazil. From January to July of this year, 52 people have been killed, according to the Land Pastoral Commission (the Comissão Pastoral da Terra, or CPT, a Catholic organization that tracks this violence).  At this rate, 2017 will be far more violent than last year, when 61 people were murdered in the hinterlands – an extraordinary number that was already double the yearly average of the past decade.

    Brazil indigenous peoples
    1 August 2017
    Brazil

    A storm of protest greeted the 19 July announcement that Brazilian President Michel Temer has approved a recommendation made by the Attorney General’s office (AGU), that federal government bodies should adopt new criteria for setting the boundaries of indigenous land.

    Respected lawyer Dalmo de Abreu Dallari, who headed the University of São Paulo’s legal faculty for many years, said that the recommendation was a “legal farce,” with the objective of “extorting from the indigenous communities their right to the land they have traditionally occupied.”

    But the bancada ruralista rural caucus in Congress is triumphant. Federal deputy Luiz Carlos Heinze, a leading member of the caucus, celebrated the AGU recommendation, saying in a video circulated on social media that it will lead to a reassessment of more than 700 cases, resulting ultimately in the dismissal of 90 percent of ongoing indigenous territory land claims.

    Latest Blog

    South America
    Brazil

       |   19 .07. 2017   |   LINDSAY BIGDA, RRI COMMUNICATIONS OFFICER

    In Brazil, indigenous and Afro-descendant communities face unprecedented threats to their hard-won territorial and constitutional rights.

    Traditionally, small ‘Pygmy’ communities moved frequently through forest territories, gathering a vast range of forest products, collecting and exchanging goods with neighboring settled societies. © Selcen Kucukustel/Atlas
    Global
    Brazil
    Colombia
    Malaysia
    India

    By  Lewis Evans, Survival International

    For Earth Day (April 22), Survival International reveals some of the amazing ways in which tribal peoples are the best conservationists and guardians of the natural world:

    1. The Baka “Pygmies” have over 15 words for elephant

    The Baka people know so much about elephants, they have different words for them according to their sex, age and even temperament.

    Latest Events

    27 November 2017 to 30 November 2017

    Location

    Teresina, Piauí, Brasil, 64000-000
    Piauí
    Brazil
    BR
    Brazil

    A Comissão Organizadora da IV Reunião Nordestina de Ciência do Solo já definiu a data do evento, que ocorrerá entre os dias 27 a 30/11/2017 na cidade de Teresina, PI. Segundo o Coordenador do evento, o Dr. Henrique Antunes de Souza, da Embrapa Meio-Norte, nos próximos dias será disponibilizado o site do evento contendo informações sobre programação, preço das inscrições, modelo de resumo, normas de submissão, etc. A seguir são apresentados os membros que compõem a Comissão Organizadora da IV RNCS:

     

    Coordenador

    23 August 2017 to 25 August 2017

    Location

    Curitiba, Brasil Curitiba
    Brazil
    BR
    Latin America and the Caribbean
    Brazil
    Portugal
    Spain

    Nos dias 23,24 e 25 de agosto do presente ano, levar-se-á a cabo o TERCEIRO CONGRESSO IBEROAMERICANO DE SOLO URBANO na cidade de Curitiba, Brasil, com o tema “O solo na nova agenda urbana”, organizado de maneira conjunta pelo Colégio Mexiquence AC, a Universidade Federal do Paraná, a Universidade Pontifícia Católica do Paraná e a Universidade Positivo.

    11 August 2017 to 11 October 2017

    Location

    Av. Presidente Vargas, 417/ 8º 20.071-003 – Rio de Janeiro – RJ
    2224-8577 Rio de Janeiro
    Brazil
    BR
    Brazil

    O Comitê Executivo da Rede Brasileira de Pesquisa em Soberania e Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional tem a satisfação de confirmar a realização do III Encontro Nacional de Pesquisa em SSAN nos dias 08, 09 e 10 de Novembro de 2017, na cidade de Curitiba (PR), em local ainda a ser escolhido entre as opções existentes.

    A programação do Encontro ainda está sendo finalizada, porém, podemos antecipar as seguintes informações:

    7 June 2017 to 9 June 2017

    Location

    Universidade Estadual de Campinas
    Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz - Barão Geraldo, Campinas - SP, Brasil
    13083-970 São Paulo
    Brazil
    BR
    Brazil

    O tema para 2017 será a Regularização Fundiária



    O Grupo de Trabalho em Governança de Terras tem a honra de apresentar a III edição do seminário que esse ano o tema principal será Regularização Fundiária. A data programada para o evento é: 07, 08 e 09 de junho de 2017.

    Para ver a programação e mais informações clique aqui.

    Debate

    23 October 2016 to 25 November 2016
    Closed
    Facilitators
    Alejandro Diez
    gonzalocolque
    Sergio Coronado
    Juan Pablo Chumacero
    Latin America and the Caribbean
    South America
    Argentina
    Bolivia
    Brazil
    Chile
    Colombia
    Ecuador
    Guyana
    Paraguay
    Peru
    Suriname
    Venezuela

    Generally, most rural land in the world has been in the hands of local peasant communities and indigenous peoples under customary land tenure systems; historically although, land ownership in rural areas, and natural resources contained in it, have been a source of tension between different actors with different ways to understand and take ownership. In this conflict of interest, usually rural and indigenous communities with collective forms of property, have lost out.

    Partners

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 881
    Manuals & Guidelines
    May 2017

    Esta publicação busca trazer a todos os Municípios brasileiros orientações sobre como incorporar a nova agenda de desenvolvimento, a Agenda de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (Agenda 2030) no planejamento e na gestão municipal. Trata-se de uma agenda global para o desenvolvimento humano e sustentável à qual o Brasil, junto com outros 192 países, aderiu em setembro de 2015, e que deve ser implantada até 2030.

    Prindex cover image
    Reports & Research
    March 2017

    This report presents results from nationally representative surveys with 1,000 residents aged 15 and older in eight countries — Brazil, Colombia, Egypt, Greece, Indonesia, Nigeria, Peru and Tanzania — and with 3,000 residents in India. Each survey attained comprehensive coverage of both urban and rural areas of the country using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling.1 Standardized interviewer and supervisor training, as well as robust validation of data collection/data entry, help to ensure rigorous quality standards. 

    Reports & Research
    March 2017

    Global demand for timber, agricultural commodities, and extractives is a significant driver of deforestation worldwide. Transparent land-concessions data for these large-scale commercial activities are essential to understand drivers of forest loss, monitor environmental impacts of ongoing activities, and ensure efficient and sustainable allocation of land.

    Journal Articles & Books
    March 2017

    As Unidades de Conservação cobrem 22% da Amazônia Legal e são uma estratégia eficaz para conservar animais, plantas e serviços ambientais, conter o desmatamento e manter o equilíbrio climático do Planeta. Contudo, as taxas de desmatamento em UCs vêm aumentando – em 2015 já superava a de 2012 em 79% –, assim como sua participação no desmatamento total da Amazônia, que passou de 6% em 2008 para 12% em 2015.