Brazil

Brazil

English

In Brazil, inequality of land distribution, inadequate access to land by the poor, and insecure tenure are contributing factors to land degradation, destruction of forests, rural poverty, violence, human rights abuses, exploitation of rural workers, and migration to crime-ridden slums and shantytowns in urban areas. In spite of numerous programs to facilitate access to land, issues remain, particularly for landless peasants.

Brazil is an economic giant, with one of the world‘s 10 highest gross domestic product (GDP). In recent years, sound macroeconomic policies have brought about stability and growth; and innovative social programs and inclusive economic growth have reduced both poverty and income inequality. The World Bank reports reductions in poverty (defined as US $2 per day measured in purchasing-power parity terms) from 20% to 7% of the population, and in income inequality (as measured by the Gini index) from 0.596 to 0.54 between 2004 and 2009. Despite these achievements, inequality remains at relatively high levels for a middle-income country (World Bank 2010).

A significant part of Brazil‘s economy relies on the use of its immense natural resource base. As a consequence, Brazil faces the challenge of productively harnessing its resources and realizing the benefits of agricultural growth while still ensuring adequate environmental protection and achieving development that will be sustainable. Brazil possesses 12% of the world‘s reserve of available freshwater. Geographically, these resources are extremely unevenly distributed, with nearly three quarters concentrated in the sparsely populated Amazon River Basin. Brazil‘s wetlands are under pressure, and water pollution and availability issues exist in southern Brazil. With support from international donors to govern its freshwater resources more efficiently, Brazil has managed to increase water supply and sanitation coverage to poorer sections of the population, but affordability remains a question. Brazil hosts extensive forests, grasslands, and wetland ecosystems. Despite legal provisions to provide protection to an estimated 3.7 million square kilometers of public and private lands, there are significant human and development pressures on all of these areas. Governance responsibilities are spread throughout Brazil‘s legal framework for the environment and forest areas, resulting in disputes between various state- and federal-level institutions.

Brazil has one of the largest and most well-developed mining sectors in the world. However, it is still working to clarify precise roles and responsibilities of the federal, state, and municipal governments in administering the mining sector to avoid confusion and conflict. Laws and policy on small- and medium-sized mining companies also need clarification. Although artisanal miners are recognized in the Constitution, the laws and policies remain vague regarding their rights over certain minerals (e.g., industrial minerals). Also, mineral deposits often lie within indigenous lands, creating conflicts, sometimes violent, between indigenous communities and artisanal miners.

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parts indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Indicators

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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  • Very Good Practice
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  • Very Weak Practice
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Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen. The indicators of this dataset assess national laws against Section 16 of the VGGT standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in the VGGTs.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Media

Latest News

Brazil pushes on with plan to open farmland sales to foreigners

Brazil says it is pushing ahead with plans to change the law and let foreigners buy farmland, in a move widely backed by investors and opposed by land rights campaigners.

"We will announce the changes in the next 30 days," Brazilian Finance Minister Henrique Meirelles said on Wednesday night in an interview with GloboNews television.

Agribusiness is one of the fastest growing sectors of Brazil's economy and Meirelles said its continued success requires more investment.

Título de terra leva dignidade à população rural de Banabuiú (Brasil)

Na manhã desta sexta-feira (03), a Secretaria do Desenvolvimento Agrário (SDA) realizou a entrega de 217 títulos de terra e assinou a ordem de serviço para instalação de sistema de abastecimento d´água com módulos sanitários em Banabuiú, município localizado a 233 km de distância da capital Fortaleza

FILE - Security officials block Pataxo indigenous men from entering the Planalto presidential palace in Brasilia, Brazil, Nov. 22, 2016. Brazil's various indigenous groups were demanding that the government recognize their ancestral lands and provide grou

Brazilian Decree Seen as Damaging to Indigenous Land Rights

By: 

RIO DE JANEIRO — Brazil has announced changes to the procedure for demarcating indigenous lands in a move campaign groups fear will weaken the land rights of communities facing mounting pressure from illegal logging and big agricultural operations.

Under the decree, demarcation of indigenous lands will be decided by the Ministry of Justice rather than the National Indian Foundation (FUNAI), a government body set up to carry out policies relating to Brazil's 900,000 indigenous people.

Latest Blog

When indigenous peoples have access and rights to their lands, nature and people are better off Image: REUTERS/Roosevelt Cassio

Indigenous peoples are the real climate experts. So why aren't we listening to them?

By Gina Cosentino, Social Development Specialist, World Bank and Climate Investment Funds

Everything old is new again, at least when it comes to searching for workable and proven solutions to addressing climate change. Indigenous peoples have developed, over time, innovative climate-smart practices rooted in traditional knowledge and their relationship with nature.

Debate

Collective property in South America, challenges and prospects

Sunday, October 23, 2016 to Friday, November 25, 2016
Facilitators
Alejandro Diez
gonzalocolque
Sergio Coronado
Juan Pablo Chumacero

Generally, most rural land in the world has been in the hands of local peasant communities and indigenous peoples under customary land tenure systems; historically although, land ownership in rural areas, and natural resources contained in it, have been a source of tension between different actors with different ways to understand and take ownership. In this conflict of interest, usually rural and indigenous communities with collective forms of property, have lost out.

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Displaying 1 - 6 of 324

From Risk and Conflict to Peace and Prosperity

Amid the realities of major political turbulence, there was growing recognition in 2016 that the land rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities are key to ensuring peace and prosperity, economic development, sound investment, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Despite equivocation by governments, a critical mass of influential investors and companies now recognize the market rationale for respecting community land rights.

Resource information

February 2017

Plano Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional

O II Plano Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional 2016-2019 é constituído pelo conjunto de ações do governo federal que buscam garantir a segurança alimentar e nutricional e o direito humano à alimentação adequada à população brasileira.

Resource information

February 2017

Revista Gestão Florestal

Esta revista é um produto do Projeto Gestão Florestal para a Produção Sustentável na Amazônia, uma realização do Governo Brasileiro por incumbência do Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA) e intermédio do Serviço Florestal Brasileiro e do Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade no contexto da Cooperação Brasil-Alemanha para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável. O Ministério Federal de Cooperação Econômica e Desenvolvimento (BMZ) da Alemanha apoia a execução do Projeto por meio da cooperação financeira do Banco Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW).

Resource information

January 2017