Albania

ALB

Albania

Albania has significant natural resources, including fertile agricultural land, an Adriatic/Ionian coastline, abundant water resources with hydropower potential and valuable mineral deposits. Since the fall of communism in 1991, the country has made significant progress toward establishing a multi-party democracy and has implemented numerous economic reforms. Albania‘s economy is one of the fastest growing in Europe (averaging 5.5% in the 2006 – 2009 period) and the percentage of the population living in poverty fell from 25% in 2002 to 12% in 2008.

However, despite its progress Albania remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. Per capita income was US $4,070 in 2009. Of its labor force of about 2 million people, an estimated 1.2 million work abroad; remittances are responsible for an estimated 30-40% of GDP. The country faces high unemployment (13% in 2010), low foreign direct investment, poor infrastructure and rising trade deficits. Albania applied for European Union membership in April 2009. In November 2010, the European Commission‘s assessment recognized the progress that Albania has made but concluded that Albania‘s democratic institutions have not yet achieved the effectiveness and stability required for membership.

One area called out by the European Commission in its assessment was Albania‘s persistent land tenure insecurity. Land reforms implemented after the fall of communism provided hundreds of thousands of people with smallholdings and urban residences but failed to address the rights of pre-1945 landowners. The estimated 41,000 claims to restitution and compensation remain largely unresolved and undermine tenure security and the development of functioning formal land markets. Almost 70% of all civil cases pending in Albanian courts involve land disputes. The courts suffer from an inadequate legal framework, inefficiencies, and corruption. Albanian citizens have resorted to bringing property claims against the Government of Albania (GOA) before the European Court for Human Rights (EctHR) – where initial decisions are going against the GOA. The GOA is taking steps to strengthen property rights, including continuing a national project to register all property and to regularize the significant number of informal landholdings in urban and peri-urban areas. Creating a plan to address the claims for restitution and compensation from pre-1945 landowners is proving most challenging.

The GOA is also targeting the agricultural and mining sectors with initiatives designed to promote growth and good governance of natural resources. Albania‘s agricultural sector, which accounts for over half of employment but only about one-fifth of GDP, is limited primarily to small family operations and subsistence farming. GOA strategies to improve agricultural performance will require support for modern equipment and extension services, sufficient high-quality inputs, continued rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure, and the development of farmer associations and a functioning rental market for agricultural land. In the mining sector, the GOA is in the process of revising the legal framework and developing systems to support its candidacy for an Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative county.

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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
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    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 273
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    December 2016
    Serbia
    Afghanistan
    Slovakia
    United States of America
    Croatia
    Ukraine
    Belarus
    Bulgaria
    Romania
    Kenya
    Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Hungary
    Moldova
    Albania
    Italy
    South Sudan
    Georgia
    Montenegro
    Europe

    Slovakia joined the Organization in 1993. During the 1990s FAO assistance in the country was focused mainly on forestry and integrated pest management (IPM). The Organization also provided technical support for the development and harmonization of national policies, particularly in the area of forestry and agriculture. Today Slovakia is a resource partner, providing support to a number of activities in the areas of FAO’s mandate, including forestry and food safety.

    Reports & Research
    December 2016
    Liechtenstein
    France
    Estonia
    Switzerland
    Belgium
    Israel
    Croatia
    Germany
    Belarus
    Ireland
    Canada
    Finland
    Cyprus
    Lithuania
    Hungary
    Kyrgyzstan
    Albania
    Italy
    Netherlands
    Kazakhstan
    Czech Republic
    Georgia
    Armenia
    Austria
    Europe

    Meeting Name: European Forestry Commission
    Meeting symbol/code: ECE/TIM/2015/2 - FO/EFC/15/2
    Session: Sess. 38 - Sess.73

    Reports & Research
    December 2016
    Angola
    Dominica
    Burkina Faso
    Bangladesh
    Chile
    Burundi
    China
    Bulgaria
    Jamaica
    Bolivia
    Cuba
    Congo
    Benin
    Costa Rica
    Colombia
    Albania
    Australia
    Botswana
    Ecuador
    Argentina
    Chad
    Armenia
    Austria

    Meeting Name: FAO Committee on Forestry
    Meeting symbol/code: COFO 2016/REP
    Session: Sess. 23

    Reports & Research
    December 2016
    Burkina Faso
    Benin
    Nigeria
    Nepal
    Zambia
    Albania
    Venezuela
    Guinea
    Malawi
    Costa Rica
    Honduras
    Mozambique
    Nicaragua
    Uganda
    Moldova
    Somalia
    Madagascar
    Ecuador
    Senegal
    Chad
    Georgia
    Armenia
    Kenya

    Meeting Name: Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA)
    Meeting symbol/code: CGRFA-16/17/16
    Session: Sess.16

    Journal Articles & Books
    September 2016
    Algeria
    Egypt
    Malawi
    Rwanda
    Croatia
    Burkina Faso
    China
    Morocco
    Ghana
    Malta
    Ethiopia
    Republic of Korea
    Niger
    Cameroon
    Cape Verde
    Mozambique
    Cyprus
    Japan
    Vietnam
    Albania
    Italy
    Cambodia

    This paper assesses past trends in agricultural land and labour productivity, as a test whether it is feasible to meet the SDG target 2.3, namely doubling productivity and incomes of smallholders within a 15-year time span, if history were to serve as a guide. The target implies agricultural productivity would need to increase by 4.6% per year on average during 2015-2030. Available country-level data on land productivity (1961-2012) and labour productivity (1980-2012) for 140 countries shows that past trends fall well short of the desired pace of productivity growth.

    Journal Articles & Books
    February 2016
    Slovenia
    Serbia
    France
    Lithuania
    Turkey
    Moldova
    Albania
    Azerbaijan
    Denmark
    Poland
    United Kingdom
    Netherlands
    Kazakhstan
    Romania

    The Land Tenure Journal is a peer-reviewed, open-access flagship journal of the Climate, Energy and Tenure Division (NRC) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The Land Tenure Journal, launched in early 2010, is a successor to the Land Reform, Land Settlement and Cooperatives, which was published between 1964 and 2009. The Land Tenure Journal is a medium for the dissemination of quality information and diversified views on land and natural resources tenure. It aims to be a leading publication in the areas of land tenure, land policy and land reform.