Over fifteen years have elapsed since the transition from the centrally plannedeconomic system started in the early 1990’s. During this time agricultural andrural areas of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone profound structuralchanges with wide variations in the degree of transformation and in the rate ofsuccess in creating a competitive market and private ownership based food andagricultural system. By becoming member of the European Union the "transition"in its traditional interpretation has been concluded in ten of the Central EastEuropean countries.
To assess future interactions between the environment and human well-being, spatially explicit ecosystem service models are needed. Currently available models mainly focus on provisioning services and do not distinguish changes in the functioning of the ecosystem (Ecosystem Functions – ESFs) and human use of such functions (Ecosystem Services – ESSs). This limits the insight on the impact of global change on human well-being. We present a set of models for assessing ESFs and ESSs.
Following the rent free land use by large-scale farms under the communist regime, it was hoped that the restoration of private ownership of land and land-auctions would revive the land market and that the market would establish real land prices and farm rents in Central and Eastern Europe. In the majority of the former socialist countries of Central Europe the primary land privatization method was restitution to pre-war owners.
This study uses the Holocene lake sediment of Lake Ķūži (Latvia, Vidzeme Heights) for environmental reconstruction with multi-proxy records including lithology, computerised axial tomography scan, grain-size analysis, geochemistry, diatoms and macrofossils, supported by AMS radiocarbon dating. Numerical analyses (PCA; CONISS) reveal three main phases in the development of the lake. Response to the Lateglacial–Holocene transition in Lake Ķūži took place around 11,300 cal. BP.
Central and Eastern Europe is experiencing significant land degradation, at the same time as social, economic and political transformation, and within the broader context of global climate change. This paper uses satellite data, primary field data and secondary information on Romania's social, political and economic dynamics, in a mixed‐method case study analysis of the drivers of, and responses to, environmental change and land degradation over the period 1984–2007.
The status of urban forests and other green open spaces has always been ambiguous within the context of rural-urban peripheries. On one hand, most European countries have introduced protected green zones around cities to contain their sprawl and to provide urban dwellers recreational space and sanitation services since the early days of city planning policies. On the other hand, the ecosystems of green open areas remain under high pressure due to high demand for suburban land, causing issues ranging from illegal dumping to ecosystem fragmentation and forest loss.
EU conservation policy is primarily based on the Natura 2000 network of protected areas (PAs). We analyzed the land-cover changes between 2000 and 2006 inside 25,703 Natura 2000 sites in 24 EU Member States, and compared them with those observed outside the PAs. At the EU level, ‘Artificial surfaces’ and ‘Agricultural areas’ exhibit lower rates of transformation within PAs than outside. ‘Forests and semi-natural areas’ marginally increased inside PAs, while they marginally decreased outside.
Discussion Paper 34 contains information on property relations and profitability of 100Russian large-scale farm enterprises, gathered in interviews in the Volgograd region in 2000.They are an integrated part of research activities concerning the privatisation and restructuringof farm enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe and take up the subject of Discussion Paper18. 31 questions were formulated. The answers were evaluated using multivariate statisticalmethods.
Az agrártermelés helyzetének romló tendenciája és a vidék kilátástalansága egyre határozottabban követeli egy egységes agrár- és vidékstratégia kialakítását. Erre azonban nemcsak külső okok, de az ágazatban érdekeltek mély belső ellentétei miatt ma sincsen sok remény. Ehhez le kellene számolni sok, a rendszerváltás óta létező, a rendszerváltás törvényei által védett tabuval, amihez az agrárágazat és a vidék sorsa iránt nagyobb felelősségre, alázatra és együttműködésre lenne szükség.
Discussion Paper 32 contains information on property relations and profitability of 100 Russian large-scale farm enterprises, gathered in interviews in the Volgograd region in 2000. They are an integrated part of research activities concerning the privatisation and restructuring of farm enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe and take up the subject of Discussion Paper 18. 31 questions were formulated. The answers were evaluated using multivariate statistical methods.