Area code (UN M.49)
Date of publication
January 2011
Geographical focus

Addressing the problem of hunger in a world where food production systems, particularly in developing countries, are being eroded and undermined by climate change is one of the most important challenges of our time. Studies by the Food and Agriculture organization (FAO), Oxfam and the Asian Development Bank, among others, underscore the significance of climate change impacts on agriculture and food production (FAO 2007, Oxfam 2009, ADB 2009).

In Southeast Asia, where bulk of the country's poor depends on rainfed farming for their food and livelihood, droughts and extreme weather conditions associated with climate change are directly linked to issues of hunger and poverty. Women, on account of the important roles they play in the production, gathering, preparation and household resource allocation for food, are particularly vulnerable to vagaries in long-term weather as these affect food access.

The need for a global response in addressing this issue is crystal clear, as climate change emphasizes the interrelatedness of countries especially in terms of environmental concerns. It has been scientifically established that the cumulative green house gas emissions, mostly from developed countries, have greatly contributed to the drastic transformation in weather patterns, the effects of which are strongly felt by poor farmers in rural communities across Asia and the world.

Hence, addressing the causes of climate change and developing measures to help communities adapt to its negative effects are extremely relevant to small men and women agricultural producers, especially in developing countries where governments have limited resources to build climate resilience. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations serves as the official venue to discuss global initiatives on climate change mitigation and adaptation. The Asian Farmers Association believes that discourses at the UNFCCC level must always integrate the inputs of small men and women agricultural producers, especially from developing countries, in order to ensure that local, national as well as international responses to climate change and food insecurity by governments are appropriate and grounded to the realities of those who are most affected by this global concern.

This research is envisioned to help contribute to current discourse on these issues by generating information on the gender dimension of climate change and food security, and using these as bases in building small men and women farmers' advocacy agenda on the same. The paper used gender as the specific prism in understanding these issues, not only on account of the fact that women are the most vulnerable to climate change and food insecurity, but also because they have the best potential to take on central roles in promoting food security and climate resilience. The capacity of women to realize this potential is clearly demonstrated in the results of the study, where women take on active roles in developing mechanisms that allow them, their families and their communities to survive and cope with the challenges brought about by climate change. 

Date of publication
October 2011
Geographical focus

Rising food prices, increasing climate instability and food riots have sparked profound political changes around the world and put agriculture high on the international agenda. What kind of agriculture is best suited to respond to those challenges, however, is the subject of profound disagreement. Too much of the current policy debate on food security, climate change and agriculture assumes that industrial agriculture and related biotechnology are the only options for feeding a growing global population. Agribusiness and agrochemical companies have created and supported this image through aggressive advertising, lobbying and support for research institutions.

Alternatives do exist. The three case studies presented in this report represent successful approaches, both in terms of the techniques they have applied, and because of the active involvement of farmers’ organizations in changing the policies needed to ensure their success. Agroecological systems, which start from the interplay between the natural environment and agriculture, and build on local priorities and knowledge about site-specific conditions, are at the center of proposals advanced by farmers’, environment and human rights movements and advocates around the world. The International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) (Available at, among other studies, provide sound scientific grounding to this approach. 

Date of publication
February 2012
Geographical focus

The Asian Farmers’ Association for Sustainable Development (AFA) and Women Organizing for Change in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (WOCAN) agreed to undertake an outcome-based evaluation of the ten provincial training activities conducted from May –December 2010, under a twoyear Rural Women’s Leadership Project (RWLP), supported by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) through the Government of Norway. Led by the Gender Research Consultant commissioned by AFA, the evaluation mobilized the services of five PAKISAMA staff from OctoberDecember 2011 and yielded significant stories, analyses and recommendations for the continuing enhancement of the gender mainstreaming efforts of PAKISAMA, AFA member in the Philippines, a national federation of peasant organizations which has been at the forefront of the agrarian struggle together with other civil-society organizations in the Philippines.

PAKISAMA's goal is to empower the Filipino farmers and fisherfolks through its two main strategy components of: (a) federation building and b() conceptualizing and promoting sustainable integrated area development as a development framework with all its members. Its federation building is focused on strengthening members' internal capacities to effectively participate in agrarian reform and rural development implementation, including improving their operational, financial and organizational systems. Connected with this task, PAKISAMA focuses on strengthening two of its sectoral organizations: the rural women groups (LAKAMBINI-PAKISAMA) and fisherfolk groups (MAMAMAYANPAKISAMA).

Date of publication
October 2015
Geographical focus

The Voluntary Guidelines for the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (or VGGT) is the first global document that addresses policy, legal and organizational frameworks that regulate tenure rights. Adopted by the Committee on World Food Security1 (CFS) last May 2012, the VGGT provide guidance on responsible governance of tenure on land, fisheries and forests as a means to alleviate hunger and poverty, enhance the environment, support national and local development and reform public administration.

While the VG has far-reaching potentials, it however needs a strong push at the country level for it to be adapted and effectively implemented. Primordial task is to keep small-scale farmers aware of the VG so that they can exercise their claim-making efforts to pressure government to adapt it. In addition, concerned national government agencies also need to understand and appreciate the VG as an instrument to improve existing legal frameworks in addressing tenure of land, fisheries and forests.

The Asian Farmers Association for Sustainable Rural Development, (AFA) implemented the project entitled “Popularizing the VGGT Among Small Scale Farmers Organizations, Relevant National Government and Inter-governmental Organizations“, with the support of the International Land Coalition (ILC) . The project helped AFA produce country reports that examine national policy framework on land/fisheries/forest tenure and propose how to improve it using the VGGT.

In this publication, we compile the country reports of three partner FOs : Farmer and Nature Net and Farmer and Water Net in Cambodia; Kendrio Krishok Moitree and Action Aid Bangladesh in Bangladesh and Union of Water User Association in Kyrgyztan.

The project itself, which ran from August 2014-August 2015, brought about better understanding of VGGT, more interaction among relevant stakeholders during local, national and regional consultations.

As the AFA members said during the regional consultation last August 2015 in Myanmar, LAND is LIFE . And small scale family farmers, through their organizations will continue efforts to claim their rights on their lands, waters, and forests, with VGGT as a powerful instrument for staking claim. 

Date of publication
October 2008
Geographical focus

Our unsustainable way of life is causing a crisis in our environment at a global scale. Climate change is threatening the future of our planet. The crisis is largely our own doing, and we also have the means to solve it, if we are willing to act on it. Farmers, fishers, and indigenous peoples, who live close to nature for their survival, are the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. But they also have a special role to play in addressing climate change. What they need for survival - sustainable and ecological friendly practices - are also what are needed to heal our planet.

Date of publication
August 2009
Geographical focus

This issue paper is about what is known as the “global financial crisis,” which is said to have affected the economies in Europe and North America and caused massive loss of jobs and bankruptcy in these countries. For some of us here in the developing world, the global financial crisis may seem very far from us and therefore, has no effect on us. We may even think that it is something that only concerns economists and the business sector. But we will learn in this paper that the global financial crisis actually affected and even worsened the situation of people and communities in developing countries, including small-scale women and men farmers.

This issue paper explains what “global financial crisis” means, what it is all about and how it started. It will then discuss the effects of the financial crisis on farmers and what civil society organizations can do to support farmers. It also points out what government can do to lessen the impact of the financial crisis on small-scale men and women farmers. Finally, it presents civil society's recommendations to effectively address the impact of the global financial crisis on the vulnerable sectors in the ASEAN region

Date of publication
September 2009
Geographical focus


Agribusiness as used in this paper refers to very big corporations that produce, process, trade, and market agricultural food products and agricultural inputs. Examples are corporations that produce inputs, such as seeds and fertilizers, and those that produce for supermarkets and retail chains. Transnational agribusiness companies are those that operate in the agriculture sector of many countries, usually with a huge volume of business.

Small-scale or family-based subsistence farms that produce mainly for the needs of the household are not agribusinesses, but they are part of the agricultural private sector since they are not public or government enterprises.

Date of publication
October 2009

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been trying hard to go into free trade agreements (FTAs) with different countries. It believes that this will increase trade and help members sell their export products to more markets in other countries. It also wants to make ASEAN the world's center of agricultural production. But in opening up markets and increasing trade, more imported goods from other countries can also come in.

These FTAs were supposed to be good for farmers, but actually, farmers have not been benefitting from these opportunities. From the experience of some countries, farmers benefit from FTAs only if they can compete in the international market and if they own land and other resources for production so that they can have the power to decide on what to plant on the land and how to use the resources.

Policies like FTAs have big impacts on farmers and agriculture, so it is important that farmers are able to voice their concerns and suggest ways to protect their sector and make sure that agriculture is developing.

This issue paper presents a regional trade agenda agreed on by several farmers' organizations from the ASEAN region. This trade agenda includes recommendations that will help make small farmers more competitive. It also suggests ways of ensuring that farmers and the agricultural sector are protected from the harmful effects of opening up markets to international trade.

The farmers proposed policies and programs that will make sure that poor families have food on their tables and have reliable sources of income. They also suggested ways of achieving rural development and helping solve poverty in their countries.

This paper also describes the situation of farmers and the agricultural sector in the region, focusing on five ASEAN countries -- Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam.

Date of publication
December 2009
Geographical focus

The issue of climate change was already being discussed in the 1980s as scientists raised alarm over the world's increasing emission of manmade green house gases (GHGs), the main cause of global warming. In 1988, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), began to look into the effects of manmade GHG emissions on climate change. Following the release of the IPCC findings in 1990, the United Nations initiated the process of convening countries with the goal of reducing man-made GHG emissions and helping countries adapt to climate change. It was not until two years later, in May 1992, that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 1 (UNFCCC) was launched. The UNFCCC is an international treaty, and was opened for signature in the same year. It entered into force in March 1994, and is presently signed by 192 countries.

Countries that signed the UNFCCC committed to develop and implement strategies to reduce GHG emissions, as well as to adapt to climate change. They agreed to establish and regularly share updated information on national GHG inventories as a way of monitoring over-all GHG emissions and monitoring the progress of the UNFCCC. The Convention also recognizes that climate change is already happening and that there is a need to help those who are affected by it, especially the developing countries. At the same time, it requires developed countries to provide financial and technological resources to help developing countries fulfill their commitment under the Convention.

In the main, parties to the Convention agreed to cooperate on climate change mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation refers to actions and interventions that reduce man-made GHG emissions while adaptation focuses on helping people and communities cope with the adverse effects of climate change.

Date of publication
November 2011
Geographical focus

In 2008, Ka Lita, a woman rice farmer in the Philippines, stood in a long line to buy rice that was being sold by the National Food Authority (NFA), the government’s rice trading agency. She had been standing under the hot sun for several hours, but she had no choice but to wait for her turn to buy rice from the NFA. The rice being sold by the government’s rice trading agency was the only rice that she could afford with her money. A few months earlier, Ka Lita sold her family’s harvest of paddy to a trader at a very low price, but the price of milled rice in the market had increased by at least two times since then. If she buys from rice retailers, she will not have enough to feed her family.

In many countries in Asia and the world, farmers were experiencing the same problem. Rice farmers and their families, like millions of poor people across the globe, faced hunger as the price of rice – a commodity which they produce – went up unexpectedly.

The sudden and unexpected increase in food prices in 2008 sent many people to hunger. It signaled to governments around the world that they have to find immediate and long-term solutions to food price volatility.

Food price volatility is the term used to refer to changes in the prices of food items that are so sudden and unexpected that governments are not able to immediately do anything to help people, especially the poor, cope with this problem.

In this issue paper, we will look at the reasons why food price volatility happens. We will also look at the work undertaken by farmers’ groups, governments and other international institutions like the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations to address this. Finally, we will look at possible solutions to this problem.


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