Africa

Date of publication
April 2014
Geographical focus

Facilitating trade flows between
countries belonging to the same sub-region does not only
require adequate transport infrastructure, or the
availability of competitive and reliable transport services.
Both will be used effectively only to the extent allowed by
the legal framework governing their operations. Similarly,
better regional economic integration will be served not only
through harmonization of national development policies, but
also, and perhaps to a greater extent, through the
preparation, ratification and implementation of
supranational legal instruments, going from the subregion to
the continent and to the level of international conventions.
Those instruments provide the necessary framework
underpinning the sustainable development of trade flows,
themselves harbingers of economic growth and employment
generation. Sub-Saharan Africa clearly illustrates this
situation, where several sub-regions are working hard
from East to West to establish institutional and economic
ties to help stimulate the joint progress of forty-eight
countries. Actually, as a result of both whimsical politics
and geography, the existence in Africa of fifteen landlocked
countries has only strengthened the need to codify the rules
governing the exchanges between coastal states and
landlocked ones, so that the latter can benefit from a
facilitated access to external markets. So, while numerous
efforts are at play to push ahead with the regional
integration of the continent, it appeared timely to draw an
inventory of the legal instruments in force in sub-Saharan
Africa, aiming at facilitating transport and trade
flows between countries of the region. This document
presents this inventory, together with an analysis of the
main components and characteristics of all listed instruments.

Date of publication
September 2014
Geographical focus

The Africa Gas Initiative (AGI) has been
established by the Oil and Gas Division of the World Bank,
to promote the utilization of natural gas in Sub-Saharan
Africa. The study focuses on coastal countries - Angola,
Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, and Gabon - along the
West African coastline, and the Gulf of Guinea, where most
of the region's gas reserves are located, and where
significant proportions of the gas produced, is being wasted
through flaring, or venting. Thus, the study's goal is
to end gas flaring, by developing indigenous natural gas
resources for local markets, and export, achieving economic
benefits from gas substitution - through reduced imports, or
increased exports of oil products - and, by improving
environmental conditions at the local, and global levels.
Under the AGI, technical assistance with regard to
institutional, and regulatory framework was conducted in
Cameroon, and Cote d'Ivoire, and, additionally,
analysis of current petroleum fiscal legislation was
undertaken, to review the profitability of gas field
development from the investors' point of view. This
analysis enabled recommendations to respective governments,
to introduce required changes in their petroleum laws.
Recommendations further include incentives to develop
activities, particularly through rational price structures,
removal of subsidies as the landed cost of liquefied
petroleum gas (LPG) is progressively reduced, and fair
competitive procedures, govern market accessibility.

Date of publication
November 2015
Geographical focus

Major changes are needed if Africans and
their children are to claim the 21st century. With the
rapidly growing population, 5 percent annual growth is
needed simply to keep the number of poor from rising.
Halving severe poverty by 2015 will require annual growth of
more than 7 percent, along with a more equitable
distribution of income. Trends in Africa will need to change
radically for a catch-up process to materialize. This will
require determined leadership within Africa. It will require
better governance developing stable and representative
constitutional arrangements, implementing the rule of law,
managing resources transparently, and delivering services
effectively to communities and firms. It will require
greater investment in Africas people as well as measures
that encourage private investment in infrastructure and
production. And it will require better support and perhaps
more support from the international development community.
In facing these challenges, Africa has enormous potential
including the potential of its women, who now provide more
than half of the regions labor but lack equal access to
education and factors of production. This report brings
together the recent body of work particularly that emanating
from Africa itself to show how some African countries are
approaching common issues. African economies and sub-regions
are diverse and each will have to find its way to address
the challenges of the 21st century.

Date of publication
April 2014
Geographical focus

The report presents findings, and the
way forward in respect of the Knowledge and Research (KAR)
Project on vehicle operations in Sub-Saharan Africa,
basically undertaken in Uganda and Ghana. In the first
phase, the study identified problems faced by transport
operators in both countries, and analyzed their impact on
vehicle operating costs, as well as examining transport
regulations, and current organization of transport services
and their impact on vehicle utilization. In the second
phase, to disseminate research findings, raise awareness,
and develop action plans, a national stakeholder workshop
was organized in each country. Main findings in Uganda
highlight the need to introduce competition, through
initiatives in the management of vehicle technical control,
training assistance, and transport as a whole, involving the
private sector. Similarly, in Ghana, highlights include the
need to establish professional freight agents concerning
land transport, in order to consolidate freight transport,
in addition to improved arrangements in transport
management, and transport legislation, and regulations. The
two main focus areas are: support to local governments in
the establishment of a transport operations strategy
framework, and, specifically, support for the development,
and management of bus, and truck parks.

Date of publication
September 2014
Geographical focus

The Africa Gas Initiative (AGI) has been
established by the Oil and Gas Division of the World Bank,
to promote the utilization of natural gas in Sub-Saharan
Africa. The study focuses on coastal countries - Angola,
Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, and Gabon - along the
West African coastline, and the Gulf of Guinea, where most
of the region's gas reserves are located, and where
significant proportions of the gas produced, is being wasted
through flaring, or venting. Thus, the study's goal is
to end gas flaring, by developing indigenous natural gas
resources for local markets, and export, achieving economic
benefits from gas substitution - through reduced imports, or
increased exports of oil products - and, by improving
environmental conditions at the local, and global levels.
Under the AGI, technical assistance with regard to
institutional, and regulatory framework was conducted in
Cameroon, and Cote d'Ivoire, and, additionally,
analysis of current petroleum fiscal legislation was
undertaken, to review the profitability of gas field
development from the investors' point of view. This
analysis enabled recommendations to respective governments,
to introduce required changes in their petroleum laws.
Recommendations further include incentives to develop
activities, particularly through rational price structures,
removal of subsidies as the landed cost of liquefied
petroleum gas (LPG) is progressively reduced, and fair
competitive procedures, govern market accessibility.

Date of publication
September 2014
Geographical focus

Leaded gasoline is the greatest single
source of human exposure to lead, and as such, the health
impacts of lead are serious, affecting, and causing elevated
blood pressure, cardiovascular conditions, neurological and
kidney disease, among many others. While over eighty percent
of the gasoline sold worldwide is now lead-free, Africa
remains the exception. The specific objectives of the
regional conference on the phase-out of leaded gasoline in
Sub-Saharan Africa were to raise awareness about the health
impacts of leaded gasoline, and build consensus among
stakeholders on the technical, regulatory, institutional,
economic issues, and the priorities for implementing lead
phase-out programs, in addition to develop action plans to
phase-out leaded gasoline, with a timetable, and monitoring
indicators. The proceedings include the topics covered at
the conference, i.e., air quality monitoring, environmental
lead levels in African cities, and air quality guidelines,
and monitoring programs. Regarding pricing and regulatory
issues, topics addressed covered economic and financial
incentives; regulation, standards, and enforceable balance,
while policy strategies included the promotion of public
transport, land use control, and city planning. Cases
studies were explored regarding successful programs of lead
phase-outs, covering oil importing and exporting countries
with, or without refineries.

Date of publication
September 2014
Geographical focus

This is one of four documents of a
series presenting the results of studies, workshops and
action plans recently undertaken for four sub-Saharan
African countries (Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania and Tanzania)
on the elimination of lead in gasoline. This document
describes the work realized in Tanzania. These four
countries have the particularity of being oil importing
countries without local refining capability. The transition
to unleaded gasoline should therefore theoretically be
easier to implement in such a context than in oil-producing
or oil-refining countries. Several technical issues (such as
the definition of specifications) and regulatory issues must
however be resolved in order to eliminate lead from gasoline
in these countries. This is precisely the goal of the
studies realized in these four oil-importing countries.
These studies and workshops are financed by The Energy
Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) which plays a
decisive role towards the transfer of technology and
knowledge in energy sector management to governments of
developing countries and of economies in transition. By
bringing its own resources and expertise, ESMAP strengthens
the partnership of the Clean Air Initiative in sub-Saharan
African Cities. This ESMAP contribution also allows for
reaching the goal set during the Dakar conference of June
2001: the complete elimination of leaded gasoline in
sub-Saharan Africa as soon as possible, at the latest by 2005.

Date of publication
August 2013
Geographical focus

The book provides an evaluation of, and
policy advice on key environmental, social, and economic
issues concerning the development of nature tourism. Using
KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa as a case study, it highlights
both the benefits, and trade-offs I promoting, an managing
sustainable nature-tourism development, and it assesses how
policy can enhance nature tourism's contribution to
economic growth, poverty reduction, and conservation. The
book's contributors explore three key issues. First,
they consider the importance of moving beyond development of
a wildlife industry, to the creation of a true nature
tourism economy, that supports biodiversity conservation.
Second, they explore the role of the private sector in
contributing to equitable development, and job creation,
while generating conservation finance. Third, they consider
alternative pricing, and other market mechanisms that can
help make nature tourism more viable, and growth-oriented.
Ultimately, the authors argue, economic development, equity,
and conservation objectives can be balanced.

Date of publication
April 2014
Geographical focus

Most existing estimates of the
macroeconomic costs of AIDS, as measured by the reduction in
the growth rate of gross domestic product, are modest. For
Africa-the continent where the epidemic has hit the
hardest-they range between 0.3 and 1.5 percent annually. The
reason is that these estimates are based on an underlying
assumption that the main effect of increased mortality is to
relieve pressure on existing land and physical capital so
that output per head is little affected. The authors argue
that this emphasis is misplaced and that, with a more
plausible view of how the economy functions over the long
run, the economic costs of AIDS are almost certain to be
much higher. Not only does AIDS destroy existing human
capital, but by killing mostly young adults, it also weakens
the mechanism through which knowledge and abilities are
transmitted from one generation to the next. The children of
AIDS victims will be left without one or both parents to
love, raise, and educate them. The model yields the
following results. In the absence of AIDS, the
counterfactual benchmark, there is modest growth, with
universal and complete education attained within three
generations. But if nothing is done to combat the epidemic,
a complete economic collapse will occur within three
generations. With optimal spending on combating the disease,
and if there is pooling, growth is maintained, albeit at a
somewhat slower rate than in the benchmark case in the
absence of AIDS. If pooling breaks down and is replaced by
nuclear families, growth will be slower still. Indeed, if
school attendance subsidies are not possible, growth will be
distinctly sluggish. In all three cases, the additional
fiscal burden of intervention will be large, which
reinforces the gravity of the findings.

Date of publication
May 2012
Geographical focus

This report is about how women
entrepreneurs can contribute more to the quality and
direction of economic and social development in the Middle
East and North Africa (MENA) region. Economic growth in the
Middle East has been remarkable since 2004, mainly because
of higher oil prices. Rapid job growth has followed, driven
mainly by the private sector. Yet the region still faces two
important challenges: the first is to create better jobs for
an increasingly educated young workforce; and the second is
to diversify its economies away from the traditional sectors
of agriculture, natural resources, construction, and public
works and into sectors that can provide more and better jobs
for young people (sectors that are more export oriented,
labor intensive, and knowledge driven). These goals can be
achieved only by more innovative and diverse investors. In
this, the private sector must play an even bigger role than
in the past.

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